- Ageing brain
human braingoes through several large-scale changes as the individual progresses from embryothrough to old age.
Developmental neurobiology concerns itself with the development of the brain. The process of
neurogenesispopulates the brain, then programmed cell deathcuts the growing brain down to size.
adolescencethe brain goes through a process of synaptic pruning.
Over the years, the human brain shows a decline in function and a change in
gene expression. This modulation in gene expression may be due to oxidative DNA damageat promoterregions in the genome. Genes that are down-regulated over the age of 40 include:
AMPA receptor subunit
* NMDA R2A receptor
subunit(involved in learning)
* Subunits of the GABA-A receptor
* Genes involved in
long-term potentiatione.g. calmodulin1 and CAM kinase II alpha.
* Calcium signalling genes
* Synaptic plasticity genes
* Synaptic vesicle release & recycling genes
Genes that are upregulated include:
* Genes associated with
stress responseand DNA repair
Normal aging is distinct from
Neurodegenerative disease. DNA damagedue to oxidationincrease as the brain ages, possibly due to impaired mitochondrial function.
DNA damage theory of aging
List of life extension related topics
Memory and aging
* [http://websites.afar.org/site/PageServer?pagename=IA_Advocacy_BrainGame_Home Brain puzzles from Infoaging.org]
* [http://websites.afar.org/site/PageServer?pagename=IA_expert_reiman Researchers Gain New Insights into the Aging Brain]
* [http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20060624/fob5.asp Study suggests aging brain shifts gears to emotional advantage]
* [http://www.vigorousmind.com Brain exercise software(commercial)]
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