Ageing brain

Ageing brain

The human brain goes through several large-scale changes as the individual progresses from embryo through to old age.

Pre-natal development

Developmental neurobiology concerns itself with the development of the brain. The process of neurogenesis populates the brain, then programmed cell death cuts the growing brain down to size.


During adolescence the brain goes through a process of synaptic pruning.


Over the years, the human brain shows a decline in function and a change in gene expression. This modulation in gene expression may be due to oxidative DNA damage at promoter regions in the genome. Genes that are down-regulated over the age of 40 include:

* GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit
* NMDA R2A receptor subunit (involved in learning)
* Subunits of the GABA-A receptor
* Genes involved in long-term potentiation e.g. calmodulin 1 and CAM kinase II alpha.
* Calcium signalling genes
* Synaptic plasticity genes
* Synaptic vesicle release & recycling genes

Genes that are upregulated include:

* Genes associated with stress response and DNA repair
* Antioxidant defence

Normal aging is distinct from Neurodegenerative disease. DNA damage due to oxidation increase as the brain ages, possibly due to impaired mitochondrial function.

ee also

* Aging
* DNA damage theory of aging
* Life extension
* List of life extension related topics
* Memory and aging
* Senescence

External links

* [ Brain puzzles from]
* [ Researchers Gain New Insights into the Aging Brain]
* [ Study suggests aging brain shifts gears to emotional advantage]
* [ Brain exercise software(commercial)]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ageing — This article is about human ageing. For other uses, see Ageing (disambiguation). A human face showing signs of ageing Ageing (British English) or aging (American English) is the accumulation of changes in a person over time.[1] Ageing in humans… …   Wikipedia

  • Brain size — is one aspect of animal anatomy and evolution. Both overall brain size and the size of substructures have been analysed, and the question of links between size and functioning particularly intelligence has often proved controversial. Brain size… …   Wikipedia

  • Human brain — The human brain controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity.Cite web|url=… …   Wikipedia

  • Senescence — refers to the biological processes of a living organism approaching an advanced age (i.e., the combination of processes of deterioration which follow the period of development of an organism). The word senescence is derived from the Latin word… …   Wikipedia

  • Bernard L. Strehler — Bernard Louis Strehler (* 21. Februar 1925 in Johnstown, Cambria County, Pennsylvania; † 3. Mai 2001 in Agoura Hills, Kalifornien) war ein US amerikanischer Biologe und Gerontologe. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Werdegang und Werk 2 Bücher …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hippocampus — For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). Brain: Hippocampus The hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. In this lateral view of the human brain, the frontal lobe is at le …   Wikipedia

  • Nootropic — Nootropics (  /noʊ.ɵ …   Wikipedia

  • Hipocampo (anatomía) — Para otros usos de este término, véase Hipocampo. Encéfalo: Hipocampo …   Wikipedia Español

  • Steady State Topography — Die Steady State Topography (abgekürzt SST) ist eine vom australischen Hirnforscher Richard Silberstein entwickelte Methode zur Messung der menschlichen Hirnaktivität [1]. Das Verfahren versteht sich als eine Weiterentwicklung des… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Citicoline — Systematic (IUPAC) name 5 O [hydroxy({hydroxy[2 (trimethylammonio)ethoxy] phosphoryl}oxy)phosphoryl]cytidine Clinical data AHFS/ …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”