Tabal (Bib. Tubal, Gk. Τιβαρηνοί Tibarenoi, Lat. Tibareni, Thobeles in Josephus) was a Luwian speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom of South Central Anatolia, forming after the collapse of the Hittite Empire and surviving into Roman times.

Some scholars associate them with the Meshechs (Meshekhs/Mosokhs, "Moschoi" in Greek). According to the archaeologist Kurt Bittel, Tabal first appears after the collapse of the Hittite Empire. [Kurt Bittel, Hattusha: The Kingdom of the Hittites, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970. p.133] The Assyrian king Shalmaneser III records that he received gifts from their 24 kings in 837 BC and the following year. A century later, their king Burutash is mentioned in an inscription of king Tiglath-Pileser III. They have left a number of inscriptions from the 9th-8th centuries BC in hieroglyphic-Luwian in the Turkish villages of Çalapverdi and Aliar.

The Georgian historian Ivane Javakhishvili considered Tabal, Tubal, Jabal and Jubal to be ancient Georgian tribal designations, and argued that they spoke a non-Indo-European language.

They and other related tribes, the "Chalybes" (Khalib/Khaldi) and the Mossynoeci ("Mossynoikoi" in Greek), are sometimes considered the founders of metallurgy. These three tribes still neighbored each other, along the Black Sea coast of Anatolia (ancient Pontus), as late as in Roman times (the tribes were known in Latin as "Tibareni", "Chalybes", and "Mossynoeci"/"Mosynoeci").

On the evidence of Hecataeus, Herodotus, Xenophon, Strabo and others, the tribe of the Tibareni ("Tibarenoi" in Greek) lived in the north of the territory of Tabal.

The known later rulers of Tabal are: ["Tübinger Bibelatlas / Tübingen Bible Atlas". Siegfried Mittmann, Götz Schmitt (eds.), Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2001, Map B IV 13.]

*Ambaris (until ca. 713)
*Hidi (ca. 690)
*Mugallu (ca. 670)
*"x"-ussi (ca. 650)


* Ivane Javakhishvili. "Historical-Ethnological problems of Georgia, the Caucasus and the Near East". Tbilisi, 1950, pp. 130-135 (in Georgian)
* Simon Janashia. "Works", vol. III. Tbilisi, 1959, pp. 2-74 (in Georgian)
* Nana Khazaradze. "The Ethnopolitical entities of Eastern Asia Minor in the first half of the 1st millennium BC". Tbilisi, 1978, pp. 3-139 (in Georgian, Russian and English)


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tabal — (Ta ba li) war ein luwisches Königreich in Ostanatolien, nordwestlich von Malatya in der heutigen Türkei. Seine Herrscher sahen sich als Nachfolger der hethitischen Großkönige und führten diesen Titel auch in ihren Inschriften, die in… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • tabal — tabal̃ interj., tàbal DūnŽ kartojant 1. DūnŽ žr. 2 tabalai 1: Vaiką neša ant rankos – galva tabal̃ tabal̃ tabaluoja Ds. 2. maišymui, ko nors judinimui nusakyti: Tabal̃ tabal̃ maišo arbatą Rmš …   Dictionary of the Lithuanian Language

  • tabal — sustantivo masculino 1. Uso/registro: restringido. Barril donde se guardan los pescados que ya se han salado: tabal de arenques …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • tabal — 1. m. Barril en que se conservan las sardinas arenques, y, en algunas partes del litoral, el boquerón descabezado o anchoa. 2. ant. atabal (ǁ tamboril) …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • Tabal — Carte des États néo hittites et araméens, c. 900 800 av. J. C. Le Tabal est une région néo hittite, peuplée majoritairement par des louvites, localisé dans le sud est de l Anatolie, dans la région de l actuelle Kayseri. Un ensemble de… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • tabal — (Del ár. tabal.) ► sustantivo masculino 1 MÚSICA Tambor, instrumento musical de percusión. 2 Barril donde se conservan los arenques y otros pescados. * * * tabal (del ár. and. «aṭṭabál») m. *Cuba en que se conservan las *sardinas arenques. * * *… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • tabal — {{#}}{{LM T44390}}{{〓}} {{[}}tabal{{]}} ‹ta·bal› {{《}}▍ s.m.{{》}} Barril que sirve para conservar pescado, especialmente arenques y anchoas …   Diccionario de uso del español actual con sinónimos y antónimos

  • tabal — ta|bal Mot Agut Nom masculí …   Diccionari Català-Català

  • Permainan-Tabal — is a two player abstract strategy game from Indonesia specifically from the island of Java. The game is sometimes referred to as a cross between Alquerque and Draughts. It is essentially Draughts played on an expanded Alquerque board. It is… …   Wikipedia

  • Anatolia — /an euh toh lee euh/, n. a vast plateau between the Black and the Mediterranean seas: in ancient usage, synonymous with the peninsula of Asia Minor; in modern usage, applied to Turkey in Asia. Cf. Asia Minor. * * * or Asia Minor Turkish Anadolu… …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”