A troopship (also troop ship or troop transport or trooper) is a
shipused to carry soldiers, either in peacetime or wartime. Operationally, troopships are normal ships, and unlike landing ships, cannot land troops directly on shore, typically loading and unloading at a seaportor onto smaller vessels, either tendersor barges.
The Troopship has as long a history as passenger ships do, as most maritime nations enlisted their support in military operations (either by leasing the vessels or by impressing them into service) when their normal naval forces were deemed insufficient for the task. In the 19th century, navies frequently chartered
civilian ocean liners, and from the start of the 20th century painted them gray and armed them; their speed, originally intended to minimize travel time, would prove valuable for outrunning submarines and enemy surface cruisers. HMT Olympic even managed to turn the tables, and rammed and sank a u-boat during one of its wartime crossings. Smaller or older liners with poorer performance were protected by operating in convoys.
Most major naval powers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries provided subsidies toward ensuring that they would have troopships available during times of war. The British government provided subsidies to both
Cunardand the White Star Linetoward the construction of liners ()
* HMT "Olympic" (Sister ship to )
* HMS "Otranto"
* [http://www.britisharmedforces.org/pages/nat_troopships.htm British Armed Forces Website: Troopships]
* James Dugan, "The Great Iron Ship", 1953 (regularly reprinted) ISBN 0-7509-3447-6
* Stephen Harding, "Great Liners at War", Motorbooks Int'l, Osceola, WI, USA, 1997 ISBN 0-7603-0346
* Goron Newell, "Ocean Liners of the 20th Century", Bonanza Books, USA, 1963 ISBN 0-517-03168X
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