- Grapheme-color synesthesia
Grapheme → color synesthesia is a form of
synesthesiain which an individual's perception of numbers and letters are associated with the experience of colors. Like all forms of synesthesia, grapheme→ colorsynesthesia is involuntary, consistent, and memorable. Grapheme → color synesthesia is one of the most common forms of synesthesia, and because of the extensive knowledge of the visual system, one of the most studied.
While no two synesthetes will report the same colors for all letters and numbers, studies of large numbers of synesthetes find that there are some commonalities across letters (e.g., A is likely to be red).Day, S.A. (2005), "Some Demographic and Socio-cultural Aspects of Synesthesia" in L. Robertson & N. Sagiv, ed., Synesthesia: Perspectives from Cognitive Neuroscience, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-516623-X, pp. 11-33] Simner, J., Ward, J. & Lanz, M., et al. (2005), "Non-random associations of graphemes to colours in synaesthetic and non-synaesthetic populations", Cognitive Neuropsychology, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1069-1085] Early studies argued that grapheme → color synesthesia was not due to associative learning, such as from playing with colored refrigerator magnets.Ramachandran, V.S. & Hubbard, E.M. (2001), " [http://psy.ucsd.edu/chip/pdf/Synaesth_JCS.pdf Synaesthesia: A window into perception, thought and language] ", Journal of Consciousness Studies, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 3-34] However, one recent study has documented a case of synesthesia in which synesthetic associations could be traced back to colored refrigerator magnets.Witthoft, N. & Winawer, N. (2006), "Synesthetic colors determined by having colored refrigerator magnets in childhood", Cortex, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 175-183.] Despite the existence of this individual case, the majority of synesthetic associations do not seem to be driven by learning of this sort.Rich, A. N., Bradshaw, J. L. & Mattingley, J. B. (2005), "A systematic, large scale study of synaesthesia: Implications for the role of early experience in lexical-colour associations", Cognition, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 53-84 ] Rather, it seems that more frequent letters are paired with more frequent colors, and some meaning-based rules, such as ‘b’ being blue, drive most synesthetic associations.
Experiences and reports
Synesthetes often report that they were unaware their experiences were unusual until they realized other people did not have them, while others report feeling as if they had been keeping a secret their entire lives. Many synesthetes can vividly remember when they first noticed their synesthetic experiences, or when they first learned that such experiences were unusual. Writer and synesthete
Patricia Lynne Duffyremembers one early experience:
As does filmmaker
On the other hand, many synesthetes never realize that their experiences are in any way unusual or exceptional. For example, the
Nobel prizewinning physicist, Richard Feynmanreports:
While synesthetes sometimes report seeing colors projected in space, they do not confuse their synesthetic colors with real colors in the external world. Rather, they report that they are simultaneously aware of the external color and also the internal, synesthetic color:
Finally, synesthetes are quite precise in the color mappings that they experience, which can lead them to make quite detailed comparisons of their colors:quotation|"I came back from college on a semester break, and was sitting with my family around the dinner table, and -- I don't know why I said it -- but I said, "The number five is yellow." There was a pause, and my father said, "No, it's yellow-ochre." And my mother and my brother looked at us like, 'this is a new game, would you share the rules with us?'"
And I was dumbfounded. So I thought, "Well." At that time in my life I was having trouble deciding whether the number two was green and the number six blue, or just the other way around. And I said to my father, "Is the number two green?" and he said, "Yes, definitely. It's green." And then he took a long look at my mother and my brother and became very quiet.
Thirty years after that, he came to my loft in Manhattan and he said, "you know, the number four *is* red, and the number zero is white. And," he said, "the number nine is green." I said, "Well, I agree with you about the four and the zero, but nine is definitely not green!" [cite web |url=http://web.mit.edu/synesthesia/www/carol.html|last=Steen |first=Carol |title=Quote from Carol Steen Artist and founding member of the
American Synesthesia Associationin an interview at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology|accessdate=2007-03-15]
Individuals with grapheme → color synesthesia rarely claim that their sensations are problematic or unwanted. In some cases, individuals report useful effects, such as aid in memory or spelling of difficult words.
quotation|I sometimes use my synaesthesia to help me remember difficult proper names. Here's a Thai chef who wrote a terrific vegetarian cookbook [these letters appear in a distinct pattern for Cassidy] :
Unfortunately, this method can backfire too, because I confuse similarly-colored names easily [the following names appear very similarly colored to Cassidy] :
This is especially problematic at parties.|Cassidy Curtis, "Letter-Color Synaesthesia" [cite web |url=http://otherthings.com/uw/syn/ |last=Curtis |first=Cassidy |title=Letter-Color Synaesthesia |accessdate=2006-12-22 ]
These experiences have led to the development of technologies intended to improve the retention and memory of graphemes by individuals without synesthesia. Computers, for instance, could use "artificial synesthesia" to color words and numbers to improve usability. Plouznikoff, N., Plouznikoff, A. & Robert, J.-M. (2005), " [http://www.digitalerainitiative.com/Media/Artificial%20Grapheme-Color%20Synesthesia%20for%20Wearable%20Task%20Support.pdf Artificial Grapheme-Color Synesthesia for Wearable Task Support] ", Ninth IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers, pp. 108-113] A somewhat related example of "computer-aided synesthesia" is using letter coloring in a web browser to prevent
IDN homograph attacks. (Someone with synesthesia can sometimes distinguish between barely-different looking characters in a similar way.)
References and notes
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