- Louise Bourgeois
bgcolour = #6495ED
name = Louise Bourgeois
caption = "Maman", by Louise Bourgeois,
is a convert|30|ft|m|sing=on-tall spider. This copy of the bronze sculpture was photographed outside the
National Gallery of Canada
birthdate = birth date and age|1911|12|25
École du Louvre, École des Beaux-Arts, worked as an assistant to Fernand Léger, Art Students League of New York
influenced by =
Louise Bourgeois (IPA-fr|luiz buʁʒwa; born in
Paris, December 25, 1911) is an artistand sculptor. Her parents repaired tapestries. At 12, she started helping them draw the missing segments of the tapestries. At 15 she studied mathematics at the Sorbonne. Her studies of geometry contributed to her early cubistdrawings. Still searching, she began painting, studying at the École du Louvreand then the École des Beaux-Arts, and worked as an assistant to Fernand Léger. In 1938 she moved with her American husband, Robert Goldwater, to New York Cityto continue her studies at the Art Students League of New York, feeling that she would not have stayed an artist had she continued to live in Paris. citation | title= Louise Bourgeois | author=Robert Ayers | publisher=ARTINFO | year=2006 | date= July 28, 2006 | url=http://www.artinfo.com/news/story/19186/louise-bourgeois/ | accessdate=2008-04-23 ]
She lives and works in
New York City.
She is best known for her 'Cells', 'Spiders' and various drawings, books and sculptures.Her works are sometimes abstract and she speaks of them in symbolic terms with the main focus being "relationships" - considering an entity in relation to its surroundings. Louise Bourgeois finds inspiration for her works from her childhood: her adulterous father, who had an affair with her governess (who resided in the home), and her mother, who refused to acknowledge it. She claims that she has been the "striking-image" of her father since birth. Bourgeois conveys feelings of anger, betrayal and jealousy, but with playfulness. In her sculpture, she has worked in many different mediums, including rubber, wood, stone, metal, and appropriately for someone who came from a family of tapestry makers, fabric. Some of her pieces consisted of erotic and sexual images, with a motif of "cumuls" (she named the round figures such because they reminded her of cumulus clouds). Her most famous works are possibly the spider structures, titled "
Maman", from the last dozen years.Maman now stands outside Tate Modern in London. A similar sculpture was featured at an art exhibition in the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Her earliest exhibition, in 1947, consisted of tunnel sculptures and wooden figures, including "The Winged Figure" (1948). Despite early success in that show, with one of the works being purchased for the Museum of Modern Art, Bourgeois was subsequently ignored by the art market during the fifties and sixties. It was in the seventies, after the deaths of her husband and father, that she became a successful artist.
In 1993 she represented the United States at the
Venice Biennale. In 1999 she participated in the Melbourne International Biennial 1999. Also in 1999, Bourgeois was the first artist commissioned to fill the Turbine Hall at the Tate Modern.
The installations were later dismantled, the spider sculpture ("Maman") was relocated to
Ottawa, where it stand outside the entrance to the National Gallery of Canada.
All of Bourgeois' sculptures incorporate a sense of vulnerability and fragility. Her works are often viewed to have a sense of sexuality to them, which she believed is a large part of both vulnerability and fragility. citation | title= Louise Bourgeois | author=Robert Ayers | publisher=ARTINFO | year=2006 | date= July 28, 2006 | url=http://www.artinfo.com/news/story/19186/louise-bourgeois/ | accessdate=2008-04-23 ]
Bourgeois was raised Christian.
List of artworks by Louise Bourgeois
* Marika Herskovic, [http://www.worldcatlibraries.org/oclc/50253062&tab=holdings "American Abstract Expressionism of the 1950s An Illustrated Survey,"] (New York School Press, 2003.) ISBN 0-9677994-1-4
* Marika Herskovic, [http://www.worldcatlibraries.org/oclc/50666793&tab=holdings "New York School Abstract Expressionists Artists Choice by Artists,"] (New York School Press, 2000.) ISBN 0-9677994-0-6
*cite news | last =Falconer | first =M| coauthors =| title =Listen with ‘Mother’| work =Visual Arts| pages =| language =| publisher =The Times| date =
2007-09-15| url =http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/visual_arts/article2433343.ece| accessdate =2007-09-28
* Huhn, Rosi. "Louise Bourgois", in: "Inside the Visible", edited by Catherine de Zegher, MIT Press, 1996.
* Mignon Nixon, "The She-Fox". In: "Women Artists at the Millennium". Edited by Carol Armstrong and Catherine de Zegher. October Books / MIT Press, 2006. ISBN 0-262-01226-x
*Mignon Nixon, "Fantastic Reality: Louise Bourgeois and a Story of Modern Art", October Books / MIT Press, 2005, ISBN 0-262-140896
*"Wallpaper", October 2008 [http://www.wallpaper.com/news/w115-the-guest-editors/2647]
* [http://www.scribemedia.org/2008/07/11/louise-bourgeois-pandoras-box/ Interview with Nancy Spector about Louise Bourgeois show at Guggenheim in New York , 2008 by ScribeMedia.Org]
* [http://www.thejewishadvocate.com/this_weeks_issue/columnists/reinharz/?content_id=4959 Bourgeois' work and Jewish identity]
* [http://www.tate.org.uk/modern/exhibitions/louisebourgeois/default.shtm 2007 exhibition] at
Tate Modern, London
* [http://www.centrepompidou.fr/Pompidou/Manifs.nsf/AllExpositions/B72813DF6A4D07F9C1257339002CEC32?OpenDocument&sessionM=2.2.1&L=2 2008 exhibition] at
Pompidou Centre, Paris
* [http://www.centrepompidou.fr/education/ressources//ENS-bourgeois-EN//ENS-bourgeois-EN.html Dossier : Louise Bourgeois, Centre Pompidou]
* [http://www.guggenheim.org/exhibitions/exhibition_pages/bourgeois/ 2008 retrospective] at the Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY
* [http://www.tate.org.uk/tateetc/issue11/lumpsbumps.htm Elaine Showalter on Louise Bourgeois]
* [http://www.pbs.org/art21/artists/bourgeois/ Biography, interviews, essays, artwork images and video clips] from PBS series "" - Season 2 (2003).
* [http://www.gallerypauleanglim.com/bourgeois_louise.html/ Available Artwork at Gallery Paule Anglim]
* [http://www.mmbeyer.com/Lisa%20and%20Paul/Louise%20Bourgeois%20spider%20.jpgSpider] Photo of statue at Philadelphia Museum.
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