Enugu (or Enugwu) is the capital city of Enugu State, Nigeria. It has a population of 688,862 (2007 estimate). The people of Enugu belong largely to the Igbo ethnic group, which is one of the three largest ethnic groups in Nigeria. The name Enugu comes from the two Igbo words "enu Ugwu", or "top of the hill." The city's slogan is "Perpetual Apex Pride".

History and politics

Enugu was originally the capital of the Eastern Region from Nigeria's independence in 1960. On May 27, 1967, the Nigerian government divided the 3 regions into 12 states. The Eastern Region was broken up and Enugu was made the capital of East Central State. On May 30, 1967, it was declared the first capital of the short-lived nation of the Republic of Biafra; on September 28, 1967, when Enugu was captured by Nigerian troops, the Biafran capital was moved to Umuahia.

At the end of the Nigerian Civil War in 1970, Enugu again became the capital of East Central State. On February 3, 1976, East Central State was broken into the two new states Imo and Anambra. Enugu became the capital of Anambra State.

In 1991, the military dictatorship of Ibrahim Babangida divided the old Anambra State into two new states, Enugu State and Anambra State. Enugu remained as the capital of the newly-created Enugu State, while Awka was named as the capital of the new Anambra State.

The main indigenous people of the city are Ogui Nike who live in the areas surrounding Hotel Presidential and Obiagu and Ama-Igbo areas, as well as Ihewuzi and Onu-Asata areas. Other groups include the Awkunanaw people, who live mainly in the Achara Layout and Uwani areas; Enugwu Ngwo people, who live on the hilltop with their farm lands sprawling all over the valley. The discovery of coal deposite in their land gave rise to settlements around the foot of the hills and as the population grew, the city expanded into the areas of other indigenous inhabitants. The city was called Enugwu Ngwo before it was changed to just Enugu. Nike indigenes live mainly around the Abakpa, Iji-Nike, and Emene areas of the state capital.

Education and communications

Enugu has three main tertiary institutions: the Enugu State University of Science & Technology (ESUT); the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus (UNEC); and the Institute of Management & Technology (IMT). It also boasts some of the best secondary schools in the country, notably the College of the Immaculate Conception, Colliery Comprehensive Secondary school (one of the foremost comprehensive secondary schools in the country) Federal Government College and the University secondary school. Among the city's television and radio stations are the Nigerian Television Authority's network affiliate (NTA Enugu), Enugu State Broadcasting Service Television (ESBS-TV), the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) network affiliate station (Radio Enugu), and Cosmo FM 93.5 (a radio station alleged to be owned by the former state governor). Prominent hotels in the city include the Presidential Hotel, Enugu, Zodiac Hotels, Enugu, Modotel Enugu, and the Nike Lake Resort Hotel. The main stadium, Nnamdi Azikiwe Stadium, has a capacity of 25,000 and a first division professional league team, the Enugu Rangers.


The city of Enugu comprises a number of areas, amongst which are Abakpa Nike, Trans Ekulu, Emene, the Government Reservation Area or G.R.A., Iva Valley, Ogui, Coal Camp, Uwani, Akwunanaw, Independence Layout, Timber Shed, Ogui New Layout, Obiagu, Artesan, New Haven, City Layout, Achara Layout, Golf Estate, Ebeano Estate, Loma Linda Estate, and Uwgu Eron.

The main high streets in Enugu are Okpara Avenue (where most of the bank main branches are located), Chime Avenue, Ogui Road, Zik Avenue, Agbani Road, Abakpa Nike Road, Abakaliki Road, Airport Road, Emene Road, Presidential Road, and Rangers Avenue.


Nicknamed "the Coal City" in the early 1900s, Enugu became a major center for the mining of the coal discovered by Albert Ernest Kitson in the Udi plateau. The Nigerian Coal Corporation has been based in Enugu since its creation in 1950. The Biafran war brought widespread devastation that forced a decline in coal production from damage or destruction of equipment. As of 2007, although coal mining is no longer the major source of income, very small quantities are transported south by rail to Port Harcourt for export.

The city's economy has diversified in recentwhen years and is largely dominated by trading, commerce, and small-scale industry.

Many of the people of Enugu sell goods at roadside or in one of many of Enugu's open markets. Some of the more popular markets in Enugu are Ogbete Market, Artisan Market, and New Market. The markets sell local foods, produce, clothing, and fabrics, as well as handmade crafts and jewelry.


Enugu is located on the main narrow-gauge railway line from Port Harcourt. The main airport in the state is the Akanu Ibiam International Airport. The mainstay of transportation is by taxi cab buses and recently by "okada", which are motorcycles.


The former Eastern Region was once famed for producing half the world's total output of palm kernels. Since the Biafran War, production has markedly declined, largely because the plantations and processing equipment were either damaged or destroyed. The production of other important cash crops such as cocoa, cashew nuts, rice, cassava, and yam also tumbled after the civil war and the immediate oil boom years. Consequently, the area presently called Enugu state, which was once a self-sufficient net exporter in agricultural produce, must now import food.

Health care

In Enugu, health care services can be obtained at ESUT (Enugu State University of Science and Technology) Teaching Hospital, UNTH (University of Nigeria, Enugu, Teaching Hospital), Park Lane General Hospital, P.M.C. (Peenok Medical Center), Hansa Clinics, Niger Foundation Hospital, Royal Hospital, Annunciation Hospital Emene, and Ntasi Obi Ndi no n'afufu Hospital trans-Ekulu, Enugu.


Dr. Alban (Alban Nwapa), the author of the dance hit "It's my life," was born in Enugu on August 26th, 1957.

External links

* [http://www.igboguide.org/index.php Nnöö - Welcome to Enugu - An insight guide to Igboland's Culture and Language ]
* [http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Nigeria.htm WorldStatesmen- Nigeria]

*cite web | url = http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?men=gpro&des=gamelan&geo=346806750 | title = "The World Gazetteer" | accessdate = 2007-04-04


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