infobox UK place
country = England
static_image_caption= The Brunel bus station
statistic_title1 = Urban sub-area
Slough Borough Council
region= South East England
postcode_district = SL1, SL2, SL3
Slough (Audio|en-uk-Slough.ogg|pronunciation; IPAEng|ˈslaʊ) is a Borough and
unitary authoritywithin the ceremonial county of Berkshire, England. At the time of the 2001 census, the population of Slough was 119,070 (est. 122,000 in 2006) and the borough area was the most ethnically diverse local authority area outside London in the United Kingdom. [ [http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=1700 National Statistics - Focus on Ethnicity and Diversity (referenced 16 February 2008)] ]
Slough is home to the
Slough Trading Estate, the UK's first such estate, which, coupled with extensive transport links, makes it an important business centre in South East England. It is also home to a campus of Thames Valley University.
Slough is at gbmapping|SU978797 and is situated to the west of
Greater London. Proximate towns include Windsor to the south, Maidenhead to the west, Uxbridgeto the northeast and Bracknellto the southwest.
The first recorded uses of the name occur as "Slo" in 1196, "Sloo" in 1336, and "Le Slowe", "Slowe" or "Slow" in 1437. It first seems to have applied to a hamlet between Upton to the east and
Chalveyto the west, roughly around the "Crown Crossroads" where the road to Windsor (now the A332) met the Great West Road. [p 46, "The History of Slough", Maxwell Fraser, Slough Corporation, 1973] The DomesdaySurvey of 1086, refers to Upton, and a wood for 200 pigs, worth £15. During the 13th century, King Henry III had a palace in Cippenham. Parts of Upton Court were built in 1325, while St Mary's Church in Langley was probably built in the late 11th or early 12th century, though it has been rebuilt and enlarged several times.
From the mid 17th century,
stagecoaches began to pass through Slough and Salt Hill which became locations for the second stage to change horses on the journey out from London. By 1838 and the opening of the Great Western Railway, Upton-cum-Chalvey's parish population had reached 1,502. In 1849, a branch line was completed from Slough station to Windsor and Eton Central railway stationfor the Queen's greater convenience.
Slough has 96
listed buildings. [ [http://www.slough.gov.uk/documents/app5.pdf Listed buildings in Slough (referenced 27 November 2006)] ] There are four Grade I: St Laurence's church (Upton), St Mary the Virgin's church (Langley), Baylis House and Godolphin Court; seven Grade II*: St Mary's church (Upton-cum-Chalvey), Upton Court, the Kederminster and Seymour Almshouses in Langley, St Peter's church (Chalvey), The Ostrich Inn (Colnbrook), King John's Palace (Colnbrook); and Grade IIlisted structures include four milestones, Slough station, and Beech, Oak and Linden Houses at Upton Hospital.
1918 saw a large area of agricultural land to the west of Slough developed as an army motor repair depot, used to store and repair huge numbers of motor vehicles coming back from First World War in
Flanders. In April 1920 the Government sold the site and its contents to the Slough Trading Co. Ltd. Repair of ex-army vehicles continued until 1925 when the Slough Trading Company Act was passed allowing the company (renamed Slough Estates Ltd) to establish the world's first Industrial Estate. [p 109, "The History of Slough", Maxwell Fraser, Slough Corporation, 1973] Spectacular growth and employment ensued, with Slough attracting workers from many parts of the UK and abroad.
After the Second World War, several further large housing developments arose to take large numbers of people migrating from war-damaged London.
In the 21st century Slough has seen major redevelopment in the town centre. Old buildings are being replaced with brand new offices and shopping complexes.
Tescohave replaced an existing superstore with a larger Tesco Extra. The Heart of SloughProject is a highly ambitious, multi-million pound plan for the redevelopment of Slough's Town Centre. The aim is to create a leading European and national focus, and cultural quarter for creative media, information and communications industries. It will create a mixed-use complex, multi-functional buildings, visual landmarks and a public space in the Thames Valley. Recommendations for the £400 million project have been approved, with work possibly starting in 2008 for completion in 2011. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/berkshire/6201145.stm BBC NEWS | England | Berkshire | Backing for town's £400m makeover ] ] Most recent news, gives an estimate for work to commence in 2009 for completion in 2018. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/berkshire/content/articles/2008/01/21/heart_of_slough_feature.shtml BBC - Berkshire - Features - Heart of Slough ] ]
Most of the area was traditionally part of
Buckinghamshireand formed over many years by the amalgamation of villages along the Great West Road.
In 1863 Slough became a local government area for the first time, when a Slough Local Board of Health was elected to represent what is now the central part of the modern Borough. This part of Upton-cum-Chalvey Parish became an urban
sanitary districtin 1875 and an Urban District Councilarea in 1894. In 1930, there was a major extension westward of the Urban District, and the area was divided into wards for the first time (the new areas of Burnham, Farnham and Stoke as well as the divisions of the old district Central, Chalvey, Langley and Upton). In 1938 the town received its first Royal Charterand became a Municipal Borough.
Slough was incorporated into Berkshire in the 1974 local government reorganisation. The old
Municipal Boroughwas abolished and replaced by a Non-metropolitan districtauthority, which was made a Borough by the town's second Royal Charter. Britwelland Wexham Courtbecame part of Slough at this time, with their own parish councils. On 1 April 1995, the Borough of Slough expanded slightly into Buckinghamshireand Surrey, to take in Colnbrookand Poyle, which received a joint parish council. Slough became a unitary authorityon 1 April 1998, with the abolition of Berkshire County Counciland the 1973–1998 Borough. The present unitary authority was created a Borough by the town's third Royal charter.
Slough is twinned with:
Riga, Latvia"(Since 2006)" ["British Latvian Trade" – the magazine of the British Chamber of Commerce in Latvia
[http://www.bccl.lv/userfiles/e_magazines/BLT_autumn-draft.pdf Autumn / Winter 2007 – page 10, column 2] (accessed 11 February 2008)]
Over the years Slough has expanded greatly, incorporating a number of different villages. Original villages which now form
suburbs of modern-day Slough include Chalvey, Cippenham, Colnbrook, George Green [ [http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&q=George+Green,+Slough,+Berkshire,+UK&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&oi=geocode_result&resnum=1&ct=title Google Maps] ] , Langley, Poyle, Upton, and Wexham. Other areas of the town include Brands Hill, Britwell, Huntercombe, Manor Park, Salt Hill, Upton Lea, and Windsor Meadows. The urban area (but not the borough council area) merges into the neighbouring parishesof Burnham, Datchet, Farnham Royal, and Stoke Poges.
The population of Slough's greater urban area is about 145,000 inhabitants.Fact|date=September 2007
Great Depressionof the 1930s, Slough became a haven for unemployed Welsh people, who walked up the Great West Roadlooking for employment.
In the post-war years, immigrants from the Commonwealth, notably
Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Indiaand Pakistanwere attracted to the town, settling predominantly in Chalvey.
In the early 1950s there were a number of Polish refugee camps scattered around the Slough area. As returning to
Poland(then in the Soviet Bloc) was not considered an option by many of the war-time refugees, many Polish families decided to settle in Slough, an expanding town seeking committed workers and offering a chance to own homes for those prepared to work hard. In time, a Polish speaking Roman CatholicParish was established with its own church building. A new wave of Polish migration to Slough has followed since Poland became part of the European Union.
Slough Council made history by electing the country's first black female mayor,
Lydia Simmons, in 1984.
Slough has the highest percentage of
Sikhresidents in the country according to the latest national censusfigures (2001). Sikh residents make up 9.1% of Slough’s population, more than any other local authority. Slough also has the highest percentage of Muslim(13.4%) and Hinduresidents (4.5%) in the South East region.
Slough's transport links make it an ideal location for those working in
London, but looking for more affordable accommodation; as such it attracts a large number of young professionals and families.fact| date=July 2008
Before the 1800s, the main businesses of Slough were brickfields and agriculture. The bricks for the building of
Eton Collegewere made in Slough. Later, as the Great West Road traffic increased, inns and pubs sprang up along the road to service the passing trade. Until the town developed as an industrial area, nurseries were prominent in the local economy; Cox's Orange Pippin applewas first raised in Colnbrook (not then within Slough) around 1825, and the dianthus"Mrs Sinkins Pink" was first raised at some point between 1868 [p20, "The Changing Face of Slough", Slough Museum, Breedon Books, Derby, 2003] and 1883 [p100, "The History of Slough", Maxwell Fraser, Slough Corporation, Slough 1973] by John Sinkins, the master of the Eton Union Workhouse, [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/gardening/plants/plantprofile_pinks.shtml BBC Gardening Plant profiles - Pinks, dianthus (referenced 24 February 2007)] ] which lay in Slough.
In the mid-1800s the only major employer apart from the brickfields was
James Elliman, who started as a draper in Chandos Street. In 1847, he changed careers and manufactured his and "Royal Embrocation" horse liniment from factories in Wellington Street and Chandos Street. Elliman became a major benefactor to the town, and is remembered today in the names of local roads and schools.
In September 1851
William Thomas Buckland, an auctioneerand surveyor from nearby Wraysbury, began livestocksales in a field near the "Great Western Road Railway Station" belonging to the "North Star Inn". Originally held on the first Tuesday of every month, the Cattle Market's popularity soon saw this increased to every Tuesday. A move to Wexham Street was necessitated by the post-war redevelopment of the town. The "Slough Cattle Market" was run by "Messrs Buckland and Sons" until its final closure in 1988. ["The History of Buckland & Sons" by Edward Barry Bowyer FRICS (1973)]
In 1906, James Horlick, one of the founders of the
eponymous malted milkcompany, opened a purpose-built red-brick factory near Slough Railway Station to manufacture his malted milk product.
Starting in the 1920s,
Slough Estates Ltd, the operator of the original Slough Trading Estate, created and operated many more estates in the UK and abroad. The Slough Trading Estatemeant that the town was largely insulated from many of the effects of recession. For many years, Slough's economy was mainly manufacturing-based.
In the last 20 or so years there has been a major shift from a manufacturing to an information-based economy. This has seen the closing down of many factories (some of which have been in Slough for many decades). The factories are rapidly being replaced by office buildings. Hundreds of major companies have sited in Slough Trading Estate over the years, with its proximity to London
Heathrow Airportand good motorway connections being attractive. In the 1960s Gerry Anderson's film company was based in Slough, and his Supermarionationseries, including "Thunderbirds", were filmed there.
The UK headquarters of
Masterfoods(originally called Mars, Incorporated) is based in Slough, the main factory having been created in 1932 by Forrest Mars Sr.after a quarrel with his father, Frank C. Mars. He proceeded to produce and develop the world famous Mars Barin Slough over 70 years ago. The European head offices of major IT companies such as Network Associates, Computer Associates, PictureTel and Compusys (amongst others) are all in the town. O2 is headquartered in the town across four buildings. The town is also home to the National Foundation for Educational Research, which is housed in The Mere.
In recent years, Slough's manufacturing industries have been in decline, instead being replaced by modern offices, including those of
Nintendo, Black and Decker, and the UK branch of popular online retailer, Amazon.com. Dulux paints are still manufactured in Slough by Imperial Chemical Industries. Satchwell have been manufacturing electrical and electronic products in Slough since the 1920s, currently focusing on climate controls such as thermostats.
The motor trade has long been represented in Slough. Until 1966
Citroënassembled cars in a Liverpool Road factory (later used by "Mars Confectionery"), and they retain their UK headquarters in the town. Ford built Transit vans at their factory in Langley (a former Hawker Aircraftsite from 1936 to the 1950s [p120, "The Changing Face of Slough", Slough Museum, Breedon Books, Derby, 2003] ) until the site was redeveloped for housing in the 1990s. Ferrari, Mercedes, Fiatand Maseratinow have offices in the town.
Due to Slough's close proximity to London, Heathrow and Surrey, the town serves a major hub for local and intra-city travel. Due to many people from Slough working in nearby towns and cities such as Windsor, Reading, London and Maidenhead there is a huge influx of passengers in the early hours in the morning as well as during the evening. Road transport in Slough includes:
* Within Slough: Buses (First, Arriva, Hoppa), Taxis, minicabs and private cars on roads are also used.
Heathrow Airport: First Berkshire bus routes 75, 76 and 77 serve Slough town centre, Langley and Heathrow. Taxis and minicabs are also available at a higher cost.
London: Buses and Greenline coaches are available, but rail is more generally used.
Birmingham: The National Expresscoaches provide services from London to Birmingham via Slough.
Slough is served by
First Great Westernstations at Burnham, central Slough and Langley. Slough station provides a junction between the Great Western Main Lineand the Slough to Windsor & Eton Linefor passengers and tourists travelling to see Windsor Castleand the town of Windsor. Tourists usually that arrive into Slough before taking the Windsor branch line to Windsor and Eton Central railway station.
Slough, along with a number of other boroughs, is bidding to be part of the
CrossrailProject, a new trans-London rail link likely to start construction in the early 2010s.
Slough has 42 parks and open spaces plus an ice skating arena where
Jayne Torvilland Christopher Deanonce trained. Slough ice skating arena is also the home to the Slough Jetsa UK hockey team in the English Premier Ice Hockey League. The town has produced many Olympic class athletes as part of the "Windsor, Slough, Eton and Hounslow Athletics Club".
* Slough has a strong rivalry with local neighbouring town,
Staines. Both are near Heathrow and vie for out-of-town businesses moving from London. Ali G, a fictional resident of Staines, often pokes fun at Slough and its sports teams.
* According to the
Campaign to Protect Rural England(CPRE) in 2006, Slough is England's least tranquil area. [ [http://www.cpre.org.uk/campaigns/landscape-and-beauty/tranquillity/local-tranquillity-scores.htm CPRE: Local tranquillity scores] ]
* Slough has been the subject of much derision. Some references are mentioned above. However, the
BBCaired a four-part series called "Making Slough Happy", where a team of experts attempted to bring happiness to the whole town. Despite complaints by some residents who said "the series was not particularly representative of the diversity of Slough", this can be contradicted because the sample "50" did provide a cross section of Slough with different ethnic minorities and age groups represented. However, most of the criticism was seen to come from people within Slough, while the majority of people outside Slough thought it was quite good; overall it did make a big impact and raised people's awareness of Slough as a whole. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2005/10_october/25/slough.shtml Making Slough Happy (BBC News)] ]
* Slough-raised comedian
Jimmy Carrsaid: "I grew up in Slough in the 1970s, if you want to know what Slough was like in the 1970s, go there now".
* The Slough Sewage Treatment Works between M4 Junc 6 and 7, sometimes releases malodorous fumes detectable to drivers on the nearby M4 motorway, a phenomenon known colloquially as "The Slough Stench".
* The Russian KGB secret service made detailed 1:10,000 maps of most urban areas of the UK, but did not bother to make a map of Slough. [http://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/02/23/kgb_maps_for_sale/]
* Slough was recently the subject of a scathing documentary by the BBC's Panorama series, entitled: "Immigration - how we lost count" [ [http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=5012592041971395448&hl=en Panorama - Immigration - How we lost count ] ] . It highlighted the massive recent growth in the immigrant population.
* 1597: In Act IV, Scene 5 [ [http://william-shakespeare.classic-literature.co.uk/the-merry-wiues-of-windsor/ebook-page-32.asp William Shakespeare - The Merry Wiues of Windsor Page 32 ] ] of
Shakespeare's " The Merry Wives of Windsor", Bardolphis mugged: "so soon as I came beyond Eton, (cozenors) threw me off, from behind one of them, in a slough of mire". This could be a reference to Slough. In the same scene Cole-brooke ( Colnbrook) is referenced along with Reading and Maidenhead.
* 1932: (but set in the 26th century) In Aldous Huxley's "
Brave New World" the chimneys of Slough Crematorium, around which Bernard Marxflies, are used to demonstrate the physio-chemical equality of all people. [ [http://www.huxley.net/bnw/five.html Brave New World Chapter 5] ]
* 1937: The poet
John Betjemanwrote his poem "Slough" as a protest against the new town and 850 factories that had arisen in what had been formerly a rural area, which he considered an onslaught on the rural lifestyle::"Come, friendly bombs, and fall on Slough":"It isn't fit for humans now":"There isn't grass to graze a cow.":"Swarm over, death!"
:However, on the centenary of the poet's birth, the daughter of the poet apologised for the poem.
Candida Lycett-Greensaid her father "regretted having ever written it". During her visit, Ms Lycett-Green presented Mayor of Slough David MacIsaac with a book of her father's poems. In it was written: "We love Slough". [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/berkshire/5351512.stm Poetic justice at last for Slough] ]
* 1979: Slough is mentioned by name in the hit single
Eton Riflesby The Jamfrom the album " Setting Sons" , in the line "There's a row going on down near Slough"
* 1991: Film "
Buddy's Song" with externals filmed mainly on the BritwellEstate and the Farnham Road (A355) released.
* 1996: The
Tiger Lillies' album "The Brothel to the Cemetery" includes a track called "Slough", probably inspired by Betjeman's poem. The lyrics to the chorus are:
:"Drop a bomb on Slough, Drop a bomb on Slough:"Drop a bomb on Slough, Drop a bomb on Slough
* 1998: The song "Costa del Slough" by the rock band
Marillionposits the town as a post- global warmingcoastal resort, possibly in a reference to the comedian Spike Milliganhaving presented Slough on TV as a holiday resort.
* 2001, 2002, 2003: The
BBCcomedy series " The Office" is set in Slough, reiterating Betjeman's view of the place as a depressing industrial wasteland. In fact the character David Brent comments on Betjeman's poem in the series, and it also appears on the inside sleeve of the video and DVD of Series 1. The US version, set in Scranton, Pennsylvania, has the company's address as being "Slough Avenue" in reference to the original.
*2004: Slough is mentioned on the ABC series Lost in the episode "Homecoming" of Season 1. In a flashback of Charlie's life, a woman he knows says her father is away purchasing a certain paper company in Slough, which is a reference to another TV series, "The Office".fact|date=February 2008
List of people from Slough, Berkshire
* [http://www.slough.gov.uk/ Slough Borough Council]
* [http://www.sloughcommunity.info/ Slough Community Information Database]
* [http://www.sloughhistoryonline.org.uk/ Slough History Online]
* [http://www.slough.gov.uk/libraries Slough Libraries]
* [http://www.sloughschoolsonline.org.uk/ Slough Schools Online]
* [http://www.artsinslough.org.uk/ Slough Arts Info]
* [http://www.sloughcvs.org.uk/ Slough Council for Voluntary Services]
* [http://www.volunteerslough.org.uk/ Volunteer Centre Slough]
* [http://www.sloughleisure.com/ Slough Community Leisure]
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