- Abstract film
Abstract film is a subgenre of
experimental film. Its history often overlaps with the concerns and history of visual music. Some of the earliest abstract motion pictures known to survive are those produced by a group of German artists working in the early 1920s, a movement referred to as "Absolute" Film: Walter Ruttmann, Hans Richter (artist), Viking Eggelingand Oskar Fischinger. These artists present different approaches to abstraction-in-motion: as an analogue to music, or as the creation of an "absolute" language of form, a desire common to early abstract art. Ruttmann wrote of his film work as 'painting in time.'
* James, David. "The Most Typical Avant-Garde" [UC Press]
* Malcolm Le Grice, "Abstract Film and Beyond." [MIT Press, 1981]
* William Moritz, "Optical Poetry." [Indiana University Press, 2004]
* Sitney, P. Adams. "Visionary Film"
* William Wees, "Light Moving in Time." [University of California Press, 1992]
* Andreas Weiland,"Hamburg Memories" [review of 3 films by Malcolm Le Grice, and by other experimental filmmakers] , in: ART IN SOCIETY, No. 3 (http://www.art-in-society.de/AS3/Weiland/Hamburg.shtml)
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