- Aleksander Krzyżanowski
Infobox Military Person
nickname="Wilk", "Wesołowski", "Dziemido", "Jan Kulczycki"
date_of_death=death date and age|1951|9|29|1895|2|18|mf=y
Aleksander "Wilk" Krzyżanowski (1895 - 1951) – was a Polish officer,
major, member of the Polish resistance movement in World War IIand Commandant of the Armia Krajowain the Wilno(now Vilnius) region.
Aleksander Krzyżanowski was born in
Bryanskand was conscripted into the Russian Army during the First World War, where he first started to specialize in artillery.
After Poland regained independence in 1918 he joined the
Polish military, and took part in the Polish-Soviet Warwhere he distinguished himself in 1919 receiving the Krzyż Walecznychmedal, and in January 1920 he took part in the heavy fighting at the Battle of Daugavpils.
interwarperiod in the Second Polish Republiche further continued his military career. At the time of the Nazi invasion of Poland ( September 1 1939) he was in the command of the "26 pułk altylerii lekkich" (26th regimentof light artillery), attached to the Polish 26th Infantry Division, part of the Army Poznańunder general Tadeusz Kutrzeba. His unit was destroyed during the battle of Bzura.
Soon afterwards he organized a partisan unit at
Świętokrzyskie Mountains, but after this unit was defeated by the Germans he arrived in Warsaw by late October, and joined the first Polish resistance organizations, the Służba Zwycięstwu Polski. By November he was assigned to Wilno(now known as Vilnius, Lithuania), at the same time occupied by the Soviet Union which divided Poland with the Nazi Germany according to the earlier concluded Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.
Soon SZP was transformed into
Związek Walki Zbrojnej. When in April 1941 Soviet NKVDarrested the commander of the ZWP in the Vilnius region, general Nikodema Sulik, it was Krzyżanowski who "de facto" replaced him, and his position was officially confirmed by general Stefan Roweckiin August. In 1942 ZWP was transformed into Armia Krajowa(AK).
Krzyżanowski attempted to build a larger anti-German coalitionpl icon cite web | author=Dymitri | title=Konflikty polsko-litewskie w latach 1918-45 (Polish-Lithuanian Conflicts 1918-1945) | publisher=Koło Naukowe Studentów Socjologii,
Stefan Wyszyński University| year=2006 | work=Gazetka Socjologiczna | url=http://www.knss.uksw.edu.pl/index.php?nazwa=5_1 | accessdate=2006-07-17 ] and issued explicit orders that no ethnic group, including Jews, should be mistreated.en icon cite journal | author = John Radzilowski | year = 1999
month = June | title = Review of Yaffa Eliach's Big Book of Holocaust Revisionism | journal =
Journal of Genocide Research
volume = 1 | issue = 2 | url = | accessdate = 2006-07-17 ] He also opened negotiations with the representatives of the Lithuanian and Belorussian resistance but they were fruitless. The negotiations with the Soviets initially lead nowhere as well. The Soviet Union aimed to ultimately regain the control from Germany over the the territories USSR annexed from Poland in 1939 and
Stalin's aim to ensure that an independent Poland would never reemerge in the postwar period.en icon cite journal | author = Judith Olsak-Glass| year = 1999 | month = January | title = Review of Piotrowski's "Poland's Holocaust" | journal = Sarmatian Review| volume = | issue = | pages = | id = | url = http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~sarmatia/199/glass.html | accessdate = 2006-07-17 ] The relationship between the Soviets and the Sikorski's Polish government in exile, formally a commanding force of the AK, was strained at best, especially in the wake of the evidence of the mass execution of the Polish POW officers by the Soviets that were in 1943 widely publicized by the Nazis.
As Soviet partisans increasingly engaged in terror against local population and attacked Home Army units, [http://www.ruf.rice.edu/%7Esarmatia/406/262choda.html Review of "Sowjetische Partisanen in Weißrußland"] , by
Marek Jan Chodakiewicz, in Sarmatian Review, April 2006] local AK commanders considered the Soviets as just another enemy.Tadeusz Piotrowski, "Poland's Holocaust", McFarland & Company, 1997, ISBN 0786403713. [http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=ISBN0786403713&id=A4FlatJCro4C&pg=PA88&lpg=PA88&dq=holocaust+in+Poland&vq=wilno&sig=8H45HLJILfGXRoOg3WdVDDjJ9Q4 Google Print, p.88] , [http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=ISBN0786403713&id=A4FlatJCro4C&vq=wilno&dq=holocaust+in+Poland&lpg=PA88&pg=PA89&sig=LHllmtARMayj58PX49-zSFPXcXI p.89] , [http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=ISBN0786403713&id=A4FlatJCro4C&pg=PA90&lpg=PA90&dq=holocaust+in+Poland&vq=%22only+a+third+of+the+available+AK+forces%22&sig=6wXjIU3xa5VvtLvquNZcIXLi2VA p.90] ] As ordered by Moscow on June 22 1943the Soviet partisans started an open fight both against the German forces and the local Polish partisans. In January and February of 1944, in the wake of growing hostilities between the Soviet partisansand the AK forces Krzyzanowski conducted a series of negotiations with Germans. In effect of negotiations with Seidler for Rosenfieldof the Nazi German Security Service near Wilejka and Julian Christiansen, the Chief of the Vilnius Abwehr, cooperation between Germans and the AK was established in the area of Krzyżanowski's units' operation and, according to the report of the local Nazi official "three sizeable Polish detachments came over to our side and initially also fought well." While Krzyzanowski refused to sign an explicit agreement on cooperation, the secret arrangement was made that the AK would "capture" the armaments and provisions left to them by Germans.
As a result, the AK units in the area were armed by Germans, Germans pulled off their mobilization plans in the area (leaving the territory for AK's mobilization campaign) and largely totally withdrew, German spies and agent were spared by AK members and no AK members were executed by Germans in their reprisals against the local population. However any such arrangements were purely tactical and did not evidenced a type of ideological collaboration as shown by
Vichy regimein France, Quisling regimein Norway or closer to the region, the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. The Poles' main motivation was to gain intelligence on German morale [http://www.naszawitryna.pl/jedwabne_en_103.html Review] by John Radzilowskiof Yaffa Eliach's "", Journal of Genocide Research, vol. 1, no. 2 (June 1999), City University of New York.] and preparedness and to acquire some badly needed weapons.
There are no known joint Polish-German actions, and the Germans were unsuccessful in their attempt to turn the Poles toward fighting exclusively against Soviet partisans.Fact|date=October 2007 Such collaboration of local commanders with the Germans was generally atypical " [...] but the Polish Home Army was by and large untained by collaboration"
Joseph Rothschild, Nancy Merriwether Wingfield, "Return to Diversity: A Political History of East Central Europe Since World War II", p. 55, Oxford University PressUS, 1999, ISBN 0195119932, [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0195119932&id=3hUA885mtwsC&dq=0195119932 Google books link] ] and such incidents were condemned by AK High Command.
In May 1944 Polish resistance units were attacked by the
Local Lithuanian Detachmentunder general Povilas Plechavičius. Krzyżanowski attempted to negotiate, but Plechavičius demanded that AK and all Polish partisans were to retreat from Wilno region and accept Lithuanian sovereignty over that territory.pl icon Henryk Piaskunowicz, "Działalnośc zbrojna Armi Krajowej na Wileńszczyśnie w latach 1942-1944" in cite book | author =Zygmunt Boradyn | coauthors =Andrzej Chmielarz, Henryk Piskunowicz | title =Armia Krajowa na Nowogródczyźnie i Wileńszczyźnie (1941-1945) | year =1997 | editor = Tomasz Strzembosz| pages =p. 40-45 | publisher =Institute of Political Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences| location =Warsaw | isbn=8390716803 ] Krzyżanowski would not agree to such a withdrawal and the fighting escalated, eventually culminating in the Polish victory over the Lithuanian collaborationist forces in the battle of Muravanaya Ashmyankaof May 13- May 14. After that battle Krzyżanowski attempted to resume negotiations but was ignored by the Lithuanian side. The increasing hostilities culminated in June, when Lithuanian pro-Nazien icon cite news |author = United States Department of Justice|url = http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/library/news/1996/960626-302crm.htm |title = Court Revokes U.S. Citizenship of Former Security Police Official |date=1996-06-26 |accessdate = 2006-06-09] Lithuanian Security Policeforces, which had recently suffered a loss of several members in a skirmish with AK, massacred 37 Polish civilians in Glinciszki, a village known to support the Polish partisans. Krzyżanowski ordered his forces to increase the activity against the Lithuanians in retribution and, according to the accounts published in Lithuania, his forces conducted a multitude of actions against the Lithuanian civil population. [lt icon Arūnas Bubnys. [http://www.atgimimas.lt/ssi.php?id=1031308337&which=1&f_text= "Armija Krajova Rytų Lietuvoje"] (Armia Krajowa in Eastern Lithuania). "Atgimimas", 9 June 1989, No. 22 (35)] ] [http://www.xxiamzius.lt/numeriai/2004/08/18/zvil_01.html lt icon Kazimieras Garšva. "Armija krajova ir Vietinė rinktinė Lietuvoje" (Armia Krajowa and Local Detachment in Lithuania). XXI amžius, No.61 (1264), 18 August 2004] ] lt icon Vilnijos draugija. " [http://www.voruta.lt/article.php?article=747 Kodėl negalima sakyti tiesos apie Armiją krajovą ?] " (Why the truth about Armia Krajowa cannot be said?), „XXI amžius“ No.61(1264), 18 August 2004] ] It is unclear whether he was aware of the Dubingiaiincident, in which a unit under Zygmunt Szendzielarzmassacred a number of Lithuanian civilians (the number of victims estimates vary between 27pl icon cite journal | author =(redPor) | year = 2001 | month = February | title = Litewska prokuratura przesłuchuje weteranów AK (Lithuanian prosecutor questioning AK veterans) | journal = Gazeta Wyborcza| volume = | issue = 2001-02-14 | url = http://serwisy.gazeta.pl/swiat/1,34175,151474.html | accessdate = 2006-06-07 ] and close to a hundred or moreFact|date=February 2007). Although the Armia Krajowa's actions are still controversial in Lithuania Fact|date=October 2007, a Lithuanian historian Arunas Bubnyshas stated that there were no mass murders by the AK (the only exception being Dubinki)Fact|date=October 2007, but that the AK was guilty only of some war crimes against individuals or selected families. Fact|date=October 2007 He also noted that accusations of genocide or widespread activities by the AK are false and have underlying political motives Fact|date=October 2007, including to counteract accusations of widespread German-Lithuanian collaboration and crimes committed by units such as the Lithuanian Secret Police.
Beginning in the spring of 1944 the Polish underground was preparing for the major
Operation Tempest, which was designed to cause a large scale uprising behind the German lines to prevent the Soviet takeover of the territory by establishing a local Polish administration before the Soviet's arrival, as a sign to the entire world that the Polish government in exilecommanded significant Polish forces. Operation Tempest would also support of the Soviet Eastern Front offensive. In June Krzyżanowski and his subordinates prepared the plan for the liberation of Wilno: Operation Ostra Brama. On 2 July 1944he gave orders to begin the operation on the 7 July, although because of the Soviet quick advance the operation was put into effect one day early (on 6 July).
Largely in the effect of the German-AK relationship in the area, only a third of the available AK force took part in the operation against the Nazis. In the end, the Polish forces had to cooperate with the Soviets to secure
Wilno. After the Poles and Soviets defeated the Germans on July 17 1944, Polish officers, including Krzyżanowski, who had been invited to a debriefing with the Soviets, were arrested and imprisoned.Piotrowski, op.cit, [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0786403713&id=A4FlatJCro4C&pg=PA99&lpg=PA99&vq=krzyzanowski&dq=holocaust+in+Poland&sig=a4_dBoxddfKo3IA4RmY-CftNPlM&hl=en p.99] ,] pl icon cite journal | author = | year = 2005 | month = February | title = Gorące lato 1944 roku. Czy potrzebna była „Burza”? (Hot Summer of 1944; was the Operation Tempest necessary?) | journal = Oblicza historii | volume = 02 | issue = | pages = 2 | url = http://www.obliczahistorii.pl/pelne.php?Art=1027&Strona=2 | format = | accessdate = 2006-07-17 ]
Krzyżanowski was in prison until 1947. In August 1947 he escaped but was quickly re-arrested when he approached a Polish official who worked for the
Polish communists. He was repatriated to Poland in October 1947. He did not support any secret resistance against the Soviets, like Wolność i Niezawisłość, arguing that it was pointless in the face of Soviet numerical superiority and the Western betrayal, but he remained in contact with many of his former subordinates. He was however still viewed as a danger to the state by the Polish communist regime, and was arrested in 1948 by Polish secret police, Urząd Bezpieczeństwa. In the prison his health collapsed, and he died on September 29 1951from tuberculosis.
He was buried in an unmarked grave, but in the wake of
destalinizationin 1957 his body was exhumed and buried in the military part of the Powązki Cemetery. In 1994 he was posthumously promoted to the rank of general.
Notes and references::In-line:::General:
* [http://www.1944.pl/index.php?a=site_text&id=12542&se_id=12544 Short biography]
*Tarka, Krzysztof. "Generał Aleksander Krzyżanowski "Wilk" Warsaw (2000).
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