Cavalier was the name used by Parliamentarians for a Royalist supporter of King Charles I during the
English Civil War( 1642– 1651). Prince Rupert, commander of much of Charles I's cavalry, is often considered an archetypical Cavalier. [, Manganiello, [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=an-eXXA3DBMC&pg=PA476&sig=ACfU3U1ArT-kmcryPT3-QKYVo2M0M2gtUQ p. 476] ]
Cavalier derives from the Spanish word "caballeros", itself originating in the
Vulgar Latinword "caballarius", meaning horseman. Shakespeare used the word "cavaleros" to describe an overbearing swashbuckler or swaggering gallant in Henry IV, Part 2, in which Shallow says "I'll drink to Master Bardolph, and to all the cavaleros about London."OED. "Cavalier"]
English civil war
"Cavalier" is chiefly associated with the Royalist supporters of King Charles I in his struggle with Parliament in the
English Civil War. At first appears as a term of reproach and contempt, applied by the opponents of King Charles I during the summer of 1642:
Charles in the Answer to the Petition
June 13, 1642speaks of Cavaliers as a "word by what mistake soever it seemes much in disfavour". It was soon adopted (as a title of honour) by the king's party, who in return applied Roundhead to their opponents, and at the Restoration the court party preserved the name, which survived till the rise of the term Tory. Encyclopaedia Britannica Eleventh EditionArticle: CAVALIER]
Cavalier was not understood at the time as primarily a term describing a style of dress, but a whole political and social attitude. However, in modern times the word has become more particularly associated with the court fashions of the period, which included long flowing hair in ringlets, brightly coloured clothes with elaborate trimmings and lace collars and cuffs, and plumed hats. [OED "Cavalier", Meaning 4. "attrib.", First quotation "1666 EVELYN "Dairy" 13 Sept., The Queene was now in her cavalier riding habite, hat and feather, and horseman's coate." ] This contrasted with the dress of at least the most extreme "
Roundhead" supporters of Parliament, with their preference for shorter hair and plainer dress, although neither side conformed to the stereotypicalimages entirely. Most Parliamentarian generals wore their hair at much the same length as their Royalist counterparts, though Cromwell was something of an exception. In fact the best patrons in the nobility of the archetypal recorder of the Cavalier image, Charles I's court painter Sir Anthony van Dyck, all took the Parliamentary side in the Civil War. Probably the most famous image identified as of a "cavalier", Frans Hals' " Laughing Cavalier", in fact shows a gentleman from the strongly Calvinist Dutch town of Haarlem, and is dated 1624. These derogatory terms (for at the time they were so intended) also showed what the typical Parliamentarian thought of the Royalist side – capricious men who cared more for vanity than the nation at large.
The chaplain to King Charles I, Edward Simmons described a Cavalier as "a Child of Honour, a Gentleman well borne and bred, that loves his king for conscience sake, of a clearer countenance, and bolder look than other men, because of a more loyal Heart." [Carlton [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=tVugNXnVrVAC&pg=PA52&lpg=PA52&source=web&ots=R_397WDr76&sig=dHZRxGeThJzUK7F71kI1FieSNCM&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result p. 52] ] There were many men in the Royalist armies who fit this description since most of the Royalist field officers were typically in their early thirties, married with rural estates which had to be managed. Although they did not share the same outlook on how to worship God as the
English Independents of the New Model Army, God was often central to their lives. This type of Cavalier was personified by Lord Jacob Astley whose prayer at the start of the Battle of Edgehillhas become famous "O Lord, Thou knowest how busy I must be this day. If I forget Thee, do not forget me." [Hume [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=rBcUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA216 p. 216] See footnote r. cites Warwick 229. ] At the end of the First Civil WarAstley gave his word that he would not take up arms again against Parliament and having given his word he felt duty bound to refuse to help the Royalist cause in the Second Civil War.
However, the word was coined by the Roundheads as a pejorative propaganda image of a licentious, hard drinking and frivolous man, who rarely, if ever, thought of God. It is this image which has survived and many Royalists, for example
Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester, fitted this description to a tee. [Barratt, 177] Of another Cavalier, Lord Goring a general in the Royalist army, [Memegalos, [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=1JFoOlQlLjQC&printsec=frontcover#PPP4,M1 inside front cover] ] the principal advisor to Charles II, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, said that he "would, without hesitation, have broken any trust, or done any act of treachery to have satisfied an ordinary passion or appetite; and in truth wanted nothing but industry (for he had wit, and courage, and understanding and ambition, uncontrolled by any fear of God or man) to have been as eminent and successful in the highest attempt of wickedness as any man in the age he lived in or before. Of all his qualifications dissimulation was his masterpiece; in which he so much excelled, that men were not ordinarily ashamed, or out of countenance, with being deceived but twice by him." [ Encyclopaedia Britannica Eleventh EditionArticle: GEORGE GORING GORING] This sense has developed into the modern English use of "cavalier" to describe a recklessly nonchalant attitude, although still with a suggestion of stylishness.
Cavaliers in the arts
1600-1650 in fashionand Cavalier poets"An example of the Cavalier style can be seen in the painting "Charles I, King of England, from Three Angles" by Anthony van Dyck.
*Barratt, John. "Cavalier Generals: King Charles I and His Commanders in the English Civil War, 1642-46", Pen & Sword Military, 2005
*Carlton, Charles. "Going to the Wars: The Experience of the British Civil Wars, 1638-1651", Routledge, 1994 ISBN 0415103916.
*Hume David. "The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution 1688 (Volume V)".T. Cadell, 1841
*Manganiello Stephen C. "The Concise Encyclopedia of the Revolutions and Wars of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 1639-1660", Scarecrow Press, 2004, ISBN 0810851008
*Memegalos, Florene S. "George Goring (1608-1657): Caroline Courtier and Royalist General", Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007 ISBN 0754652998
Oxford English DictionarySecond Edition 1989 (OED).
*Barratt, John; "Cavaliers The Royalist Army at War 1642–1646", Pub Sutton, 2000, ISBN 0-7509-3525-1
*Stoyle, Mark; " [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/choosingsides_01.shtml Choosing Sides in the English Civil War] "
BBC, Retrieved 2008-09-16
John Cruso" [http://hermes.ucop.edu:8085/F/?func=direct&doc_number=027717002¤t_base=CDL90&format=999 Military Instructions for the Cavallrie: or Rules and directions for the service of horse] " first published 1632 ( [http://www.drizzle.com/~celyn/jherek/16thMilSci.pdf Military science in western Europe in the sixteenth century] page 45)
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