- Teodor Kazimierz Czartoryski
Teodor Kazimierz Czartoryski ( _lt. teodoras Kazimieras Čartoriskis) (
1704- 1 March, 1768in Dolsk) was a bishop of Poznańand a member of the magnatefamily of Czartoryskiin the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. While he was took good care of his ecclesiastical estates, he was much less involved in politics then his more famous brothers from the " familia", August Aleksander Czartoryskiand Michał Fryderyk Czartoryski.
Teodor was chosen by his family to be a priest from the early childhood, receiving the title of canon when he was 13 years old. He studied in the
jesuit Collegium Romanumin Romeand received the Holy Ordersin 1727. Starting that year, the influence of " familia" resulted in him receiving a series of prosperous prebendaries, as well as becoming one of the ecclesiastical judges in the Crown Tribunal.
In 1729 Teodor returned to Rome, and with the support of
France, the Czartoryski's "familia" secured his nomination for the bishop of Poznań(from 1732). However "familia" plans to secure the cardinal nomination for Teodor failed in the aftermath of the 1733 free election, with the beginning of the War of the Polish Succession, with the pro-French faction defeat. The Poznań bishopry was denied to "familia" (and Teodor) until 1638, and even that grudgingly approved by the king of Poland, August III the Saxon, after the death of member of "familia", primate of Poland, Teodor Andrzej Potocki.
Teodor, as a bishop, become one of the senators of Poland. His first speech at
Sejm(Polish parliament) outlined the political plan of "familia", proposing the reforms meant to prop the failing political systemof the Commonwealth (" Golden Freedoms"). Specifically he argued for modernising and enlarging the army, raising the taxes and support of the cities. However Teodor was never fond of politics, taking part in Sejm deliberations only when he deemed it really necessary. In 1764 he caused a scandal, when bishop of Wilno, Ignacy Jakub Massalskiwas giving a speech defending hetman Jan Klemens Branicki, Teodor has fallen asleep and fallen on bishop Massalski, causing widespread amusement.
diocese, Teorod concentrated on economics and theology. He was seen as a tolerant - by some, even too tolerant - bishop in the matters dealing with non-Catholics, in 1750 allowing the first Lutheranburial in Warsaw. He was also known to disapprove of fasting, and when his court doctor "discovered" that the Polish plaitis caused by the linumoil, he succeeded in obtaining a papal bullallowing him to eat diariesduring the fastings.
He was concerned about the economics of his lands. In Warsaw he established a commission to improve the condition of the city streets. In Poznań he helped to reduce the city's debt, and the voivode of Poznań,
Stefan Garczyński, complimented him in 1748 for those actions. In 1756 he spent a good part of the year traveling around his diocese, supporting the rebuilding of the town of Krobiewhich recently suffered a major fire. In 1750s he also sponsored the reconstruction of the Archcathedral Basilica of St. Peter and St. Paul, Poznań, as well as the bishop's palace in Ostrów Tumski.
Unlike many of the contemporary
magnates, his life style was relatively modest, and he preferred his smaller palace in Dolskto the lavish residence of Poznań's bishop in Ciążeń. He was known as a music connoisseur, and played harpsichordand viola. August III the Saxondied in 1763. "Familia" decided to support the Russian candidate, Stanisław August Poniatowski, but other Polish neighbours also tried to influence the free election. Prussian army entered Wielkopolska, including the Poznań Voivodship, trying to show the might of Prussia, and Teodor, together with other Poznań officials, sent a protest note to Potsdam. He also supported politics of "familia" and secured the support of the Poznań region deputies to the election sejm.
At that time Teodor was beginning to suffer from weak health. In 1765 he and his private doctor
Nathanael Matthaeus von Wolfwent to Spa, Belgium. In 1766 he tried to take part in the new Sejm, but because of poor health his influence on it was negligible, and he had no influence on the turbulent events in the last months of his life, notably the Radom Confederationand the Repnin Sejm. He died on 1 March, 1768in his palace at Dolsk.
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