- Itche Goldberg
Itche Goldberg (
March 22, 1904- December 27, 2006) was a Yiddishwriter of children's books, poet, librettist, educator, literary critic, camp director, publisher, fundraiser, essayist, literary editor, Yiddish language and culture scholar, and left-wing political activist. He devoted his life to the preservation of the Yiddish language and secular Yiddish culture.
Goldberg was born in Apt,
Poland, and moved to Warsawin 1914, attending Poznanski Teachers Seminary. In 1920 he moved to Toronto, Canada, studying philosophy, German and political scienceat McMaster University. While in Toronto, he taught Yiddish at The Workmen's Circle/Arbeter Ringschool; it was in Toronto that his leftist/pro- communistsympathies matured [http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/llt/49/05reiter.html History Co-operative] ] . He moved to New York Cityin the late 1920s, and continued teaching Yiddish there as well as in Philadelphia, but left the socialistWorkmen's Circle schools for the more radical "Arbeter Ordn Shuln" [ [http://www.laits.utexas.edu/gottesman/abord.html Chapter Five : Yiddish Schools ] ] . The education schism, with Goldberg and many schools leaving the "Arbeter Ring" to form the "Ordn" network, was part of an exceedingly vituperative break within the leftist Yiddish community between the communist and socialists. (The scathing sectarian term the communists had for their socialist rivals was "social fascists". [ [http://www.forward.com/articles/once-feuding-blood-relatives-united-in-a-marriage/ forward.com] ] )
Passing on the Yiddish tradition to future generations was a mainstay of his life. From 1937 to 1951 he was editor of "Yunvarg" [ [http://www.laits.utexas.edu/gottesman/childlit.html Chapter Seven : Yiddish Children's Journals ] ] , a children's magazine. He wrote many children's stories, and his book, "Yiddish Stories for Young People", is still being used at Workmen's Circle schools. [ [http://www.workmenscircleboston.org/2nd.htm Workmen's Circle] ] From 1970 to 1985 he was professor of Yiddish language and literature at Queens College (C.U.N.Y.). He may be currently best known as editor from 1964 to 2004 of the longest running journal of
Yiddish literature, "Yidishe Kultur". The frequency of publication went down during this period, as Yiddish writers and speakers gradually died off. The final edition was published in 2004. Yet, he clung to the notion that Yiddish can still be a living language. [http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/baltsun/access/681958381.html?dids=681958381:681958381&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Aug+22%2C+2004&author=David+Kohn&pub=The+Sun&desc=Working+to+nurture+a+language+ Working to nurture a language ] ] He saw in the Yiddish/Jewish culture of Eastern Europe humanistic and progressive values. He felt that these were important, not religious ritual. He even criticized Nobel Prize winning author I.B. Singer for not portraying these ideals in his writings. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/03/obituaries/03goldberg.html New York Times obiutuaries, 1 March 2007] ]
Goldberg, a secular
Jew, had been closely associated with left-wing causes for many years. There were probably several threads to his attraction to a radical cause. His close associates in Toronto were Communists, including his brother-in-law, who shared his revolutionary world view of social justice. [Wikipedia article on J.B. Salsberg] He saw the Soviet Union as the salvation for the Jewish national and social problems. Also, he described an embedded rebelliousness in the those doubly alienated, "suffering and benefiting from 'rejection [and persecution] by the Gentiles, but also their own rejection of the narrowness of the rabbi and merchant dominated shtetl life'". [ [http://www.usask.ca/relst/jrpc/br10-lowereastside.html University of Saskatchewan] ]
Shortly after moving to
New York City, he became director of the "Arbeter Ordn Shuln", and helped set up a nationwide network of these schools, reaching a peak number of 140. Best described as supplemental schools, they aimed at promoting Yiddish identity, as well as inculcating the concepts of class consciousnessand social justice. Goldberg saw two function of the "shuln"; "to revolutionize Yiddish education and to separate religion from education for the first time in Jewish history; and on the other hand to insure that progressive secularism is carried forward from generation to generation." [ [http://www.jewishcurrents.org/2006-nov-stillman.htm Jewish Currents, November 2006] ] For decades beginning in the 1920s, including two as director, [http://www.kinderland.org/campkinderland/directors/1935itchiegoldberg.jpg] [ [http://www.kinderland.org/campkinderland/directors/directors.htm Camp Kinderland Alumni Association ] ] he was associated with Camp Kinderland[ [http://www3.iath.virginia.edu/lists_archive/sixties-l/4161.html stdin: [sixties-l Political Summer Camps Cater to Extremes (fw ] ] , known as a red diaper babycamp. [ [http://www.kinderland.org/sylvanlake/pictures/hopnobbing/1949paulrobeson1.htm Lakeland ] ] [http://www.kinderland.org/sylvanlake/pictures/1930s/images/1932group.jpg] From 1937 to 1951, he was national school and cultural director of the Jewish People’s Fraternal Order, [http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/llt/49/05reiter.html] a branch of the pro-Communist International Workers Order. At its peak after World War IIthe JPFO had 50,000 members. [ [http://dlib.nyu.edu:8083/tamwagead/servlet/SaxonServlet?source=iwo.xml&style=saxon01t2002.xsl] ] When the IWO was about to be liquidated during the Red Scare in 1954 by the Department of Insurance of New York State (IWO was a fiscally sound fraternal benefit insurance company with close 200,000 members in its peak years, 1946-47), Itche withdrew the Yiddish shules from the JPFO in order to preserve them, creating the independent Service Bureau for Jewish Education so that the schools could continue to function. In the anti-left atmosphere of the period, this effort was only partially successful.
Over time he made a transition to
democratic socialism, eventually seeing the Soviet Unionas an anti-model. [ [http://www.geocities.com/stuart323_99/JewishCurrent.htm New Page 5 ] ] By the 1950s his enthusiasm for the Soviet Union had completely evaporated, particularly after the Soviets executed Jewish writers in 1952. [http://www.raoulwallenberg.net/?en/press/1216.htm Editor strives to save Yiddish journal ] ] Beginning in 1957 "Yiddishe Kultur" co-sponsored an annual public remembranceof the 12 August1952 murders. [ [http://www.jewishcurrents.org/2004-july-schappes.htm Jewish Currents - Morris U. Shappes 1907 - 2004 ] ] Nevertheless, he remained a central figure in the Jewish leftfor decades. [http://listserv.linguistlist.org/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0404&L=lgpolicy-list&D=0&P=4777 LISTSERV 14.4 ] ] . In contrast to literary critics on the right who saw in Soviet Yiddish literature enforced or servile obeisence to Soviet ideology, Goldberg wrote and lectured frequently on the proud Jewish content he found in the works of such Soviet Yiddish writers as Perets Markish, Dovid Hofshteyn, and Dovid Bergelson. The Yidisher Kultur Farband(YKUF) in whose leadership Goldberg served for many years published numerous works by these authors when other Yiddish publishers in the west rejected them as outside of the Yiddish canon.
"Itche Goldberg is priceless." [http://www.vote-smart.org/speech_detail.php?speech_id=45037&keyword=&phrase=&contain=/ Project Vote Smart - Error Getting Speech ] ]
" [He] has devoted his adult life to ensuring the 1,000-year-old Yiddish language and culture survive." [ [http://desertpeace.blogspot.com/2006/05/itche-goldberg-alive-and-well-at-102.html DesertPeace: ITCHE GOLDBERG... ALIVE AND WELL AT 102 ] ]
"Over the decades he grew as an innovative literary researcher and a beloved teacher of Yiddish language and literature, from elementary school level to the university." [http://www.yiddishvilnius.com/newsletter_11.html Vilnius Yiddish Institute ] ]
"A leading cultural figure; he was part of an ideological movement that used the Yiddish language to teach and convince Jews about the international proletariat struggle." [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/01/AR2007010100814.html Itche Goldberg; Promoted Yiddish Culture - washingtonpost.com ] ]
"It is rare to encounter a man who has achieved as much as Itche has, but that is not what truly makes Itche unique. What sets Itche apart from those few who can match his accomplishments is his continued passion to learn, explore and delve further into the subjects he studies."
"A titan, a brilliant scholar of literature. A master teacher of generations." [http://select.nytimes.com/2006/05/27/nyregion/27about.html] ]
"One of the most foremost scholars of Yiddish culture." [ [http://www.ir.miami.edu/miller-center/pages/outreachpast.html Sue and Leonard Miller Center for Contemporary Judaic Studies - Past Events, Lectures and Activities ] ]
Eruditehead of the erstwhile communist Yiddish cultural world." [ [http://yiddishbookcenter.org/+10176 National Yiddish Book Center - Outwitting History by Aaron Lansky ] ]
"A passion for an ancient Jewish language that threatens to slip into obscurity." [cite web|url=http://web.israelinsider.com/Articles/Culture/8513.htm |work=
israelinsider|title= Culture: Against the odds, devotees fight to save Yiddish|accessdate=2008-06-30|date=2006-05-21 ]
His writing has been described as "imbued with understanding and compassion, and possessed of the rarest ingredients, a subtle, sparkling, and heart-warming sense of humor." [ [http://www.yiddishculture.org/bookreview6.html Dora Teitelboim Center for Yiddish Culture - Newsletter Archives ] ]
"Today's eldest left-wing Yiddish pedagogue." [ [http://www.thenation.com/doc/20001016/buhle/3 Walker in the Imagined City ] ]
"Mir shatsn op ayer vunderlekhe arbet l'toyves der yidisher kultur vos hot baraikhert dem gontsn Yidishn yishev". (“We honor your wonderful work for the benefit of Yiddish culture which enriches all of Yiddish heritage.”)
"For a century [he] was a living link to the Yiddish culture of East European immigrants." [ [http://web.israelinsider.com/Articles/Briefs/10237.htm israelinsider: Briefs: Yiddishist Itche Goldberg dies ] ]
Regarding "Yiddishe Kultur": "Itche Goldberg is the dynamic force behind this publication." [ [http://www.derbay.org/frontpage/2002fp.html 2002 ] ]
"A champion of Yiddish who wrote and edited and taught his beloved language in the face of all those who said keeping Yiddish alive was a lost cause." [ [http://fadetheory.com/?p=1319 fade theory » obit: Itche Goldberg, Yiddish Advocate ] ]
"A fixture in the communist struggles of the 1920s and 30s." [ [http://www.latimes.com/news/obituaries/la-me-goldberg9jan09,1,7528866.story?coll=la-news-obituaries&ctrack=1&cset=true Itche Goldberg, 102; fixture in communist struggle and a teacher of Yiddish culture - Los Angeles Times ] ] "Veteran of the communist heyday of the 1920s."
"Embraced then rejected Communism during a lifelong dedication to the preservation of Yiddish culture." [ [http://www.thejewishweek.com/news/newscontent.php3?artid=13501] ]
In honor of his 100th birthday the Jewish People's Philharmonic Chorus had a concert which included a musical adaptation of
I.L. Peretz's "Oyb Nit Nokh Hekher", with librettoby Itche Goldberg. [ [http://www.klezmershack.com/calendar/2004_06.php KlezCalendar: June 2004 Archives ] ] In another 100th tribute, Jerrold Nadlerhonored him in the United States House of Representativesby saying: "Mir shatsn op ayer vunderlekhe arbet l'toyves der yidisher kultur vos hot baraikhert dem gontsn Yiddishn yishev"." (English translation ``We honor your wonderful work for the benefit of Yiddish culture which enriches all of Yiddish heritage.")He died at 102 years of age with, still, a very sharp mind. His last book was "Essayen Tsvey" ("Essays Two"), in 2004, at age 100. In honor of this publication, a commemoration of his life was held 25 July, 2006, sponsored by YIVO and League for Yiddish. A Josh Wiletsky documentary was made of his lfe at age 101, "Itche Goldberg, A Century Of Yiddish Letters" [ [http://savethemusic.com/yiddish/releases.html The Yiddish Music Hall:recent Releases ] ] , and was shown at this event. [ [http://www.leagueforyiddish.org/ovleitgojul2.html An Ovnt Lekoved Itshe Goldberg, Dem 25stn Yuli 2006 ] ]
"The split in the Socialist ranks was very powerful, and harmful and it was about attitudes to the Soviet Union".http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/llt/49/05reiter.html]
“Never, never in history, did we produce so many poets and so much poetry in such a short period of time, barely one century. It is rare to find so much creativity in the entire history of our involvement with other languages. Look at the Tanakh — you have any number of splendors put together by various writers over the course of centuries. But here, they weren’t given any time. Time was so short for all of us. And we’re speaking only of poetry. But the prose that was produced! ... It was a time of exceptional, history-making creativity. And if we don’t understand this, we will perhaps not understand how to inherit or what to inherit.” (Speaking of Yiddish literature in first half of 20th century) [http://www.jewishcurrents.org/2006-nov-stillman.htm Jewish Currents November 2006 - Itche Goldberg on Khayim Zhitlovsky ] ]
“Just because I’m secular doesn’t mean I’m antireligious.” [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/03/obituaries/03goldberg.html Itche Goldberg, Yiddish Advocate, 102, Dies - New York Times ] ]
"The need to keep Yiddish alive in one shape or another is very basic. And after what we went through -- the loss not only of six million but also
Eastern Europe-- do you allow a culture to drift away and stop existing?" [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C01E5DB1339F937A35757C0A9629C8B63&fta=y "NEIGHBORHOOD REPORT: LOWER EAST SIDE -- THE VOICE; After 100 Years, Still Dreaming Of Corned Beef And Yiddish"] , " The New York Times"]
"You can't possibly see a future Jewish life with the disappearance of a 1,000-year-old language and with it a 1,000-year-old culture. Somehow it has to be there." [ [http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3348114,00.html NY: Promoter of Yiddish culture Itche Goldberg dies - Israel Jewish Scene, Ynetnews ] ]
"There was no question about our Jewishness or Jewish
consciousnessand the Jewish consciousness led us very naturally to the Soviet Union. Here was Romania, anti-Semitic; here was Poland, which was anti-Semitic. Suddenly we saw how Jewish culturewas developing in the Soviet Union. It was really breathtaking. You had the feeling that both the national problem was solved and the social problem was solved. This was no small thing. It was overpowering and we were young."
"We're dealing with a language that is about 1,000 years old and a literature that is 600 or 700 years old. What developed was an extraordinary and profound
modern literaturewhich would become the equivalent of French and German literature."
"I only have two dreams. One dream is that someone will knock on the door and I will open it and they give me a check for $150,000 for the magazine. Second dream is that someone knocks at the door and I open it up and he gives me a corned beef sandwich. Those are my only two dreams. I'm not asking for much. Really, I'm not. And I think they're both reachable."
At age 100: "The question of where we go from here is on my mind a lot. What’s happened to socialism? What is the future of Yiddishism? When I came, at age 21, into the Workmen’s Circle shule in Toronto, I had so much eagerness, energy, and faith in socialism and in Yiddishism. Now I have insecurity. But I am used to insecurity. For over forty years I have published Yidishe Kultur without ever being able to secure its existence!" [http://jewishcurrents.blogspot.com/2007/01/itche-goldberg-and-secular-judaism.html Jewish Currents Magazine: ... The Editor's Blog: Itche Goldberg and “Secular Judaism” ] ]
"So a generation passes." [ [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1859845983/ Amazon.com: From the Lower East Side to Hollywood: Jews in American Popular Culture: Books: Paul Buhle ] ]
"Nu, far vos a bissel? Lernst du!" ("So, why just a little? Learn!", response to someone who knew only a little Yiddish) [ [http://www.novemberling.com/journal.html Story time! ] ]
On Eruv Yom Kippur, 2006, three months before dying, he said (in Yiddish) to his secretary: “I want to put on Teffilin." She almost fainted. Itche, the radical, left wing socialist from the Arbeter Ordn Shuln wanted to put on Teffilin – why? “Not only that, I also want Mezuzos on all my doors.” [ [http://www.algemeiner.com/generic.asp?id=2495 Yiddish » היסטאריע » צום ערשטן מאָל אין 89 יאָר, האָט דער גרויסער אידישיסט, היינט 102 יאָר אַלט, געלייגט תפילין ] ]
"There will... be a full ‘transfer of power’ to the new emerging generation. I stress emerging, because I do not anticipate a Venus-like birth of a new Jewish Homo Americanus flowing out of the foam of the Sea of History. It will be a slow process of continuity and change.... The historic challenge for us will be: can we carry over and implant our secular and humanist national values into the Jewish cultural patterns of the ‘80s? I am not going to define secularism here. However, I want to make a very broad statement: secularism is for us the only point of entry into Jewish life. We have ideologically and philosophically rejected for ourselves religion as the point of entry. Zionism — despite our positive stand on Israel — is not our link, either. National negation we eschew and reject. We therefore have no alternative whatsoever except a historic-cultural secular tie which binds us with the people. Realistically and historically we have no alternative. However, to influence others — yes, and to give identity to ourselves — we must raise secularism to a meaningful expression and link with the people.... Meaningful implies depth, knowledge, commitment, involvement, renewal and — yes, of course — tradition."
"I sometimes feel that we were wrong in failing to incorporate more Jewish values in our Yiddishkayt. I’ve always enjoyed reading the Bible, particularly the prophets, and I wonder at times if we were a bit too dismissive, or ignorant, of our Jewishness.... I would not now permit so much to be brushed aside." (See also [http://www.algemeiner.com/generic.asp?id=2495] )
“As the medieval walls around Jewish life collapsed, the role of religion as the sole expression of national connection dwindled.” [Religion became] “a branch of the Jewish tree but not its trunk.” This thesis, writes Goldberg, “was a significant act of historical liberation. The branch-stem concept became the groundwork for the ventures of Jewish secularism. Secularism rests on two notions: on the one hand accepting religion as an important form of expression for a certain sector of the people, and, on the other, proclaiming secularism as a branch of the same stem with equal rights and values — immersed in tradition and a natural outgrowth of the people’s past. For the first time, the concept of pluralism became acceptable within the Jewish community — not according to economic class, but according to beliefs and ideas of nationhood. Although secularism continued to rely on the lower layers of society — the workers, middle-class folks, and large parts of the modern intelligentsia — for the first time the basic idea was confirmed that every segment of the people, so long as it remains tied to the stem, has a right to shape its own national connections and its national destiny according to its perception of its history.”
1953 - "The first annual concert of the Jewish Cultural Clubs and Societies features the sister chorus of the JPPC, the Jewish People's Chorus of New York (JPCNY) conducted by Maurice Rauch, performing the first of many dramatic chorales written by Itche Goldberg in collaboration with Rauch as composer" [ [http://thejppc.org/_wsn/page5.html Jewish People's Philharmonic Chorus (JPPC) ] ] More than 20 works were done with Rauch.
1981 Yiddish musical play: "Tevye's Hodl"
Musical adaptation of
I.L. Peretz's "Oyb Nit Nokh Hekher" [ [http://www.klezmershack.com/calendar/003783.php KlezCalendar: Jewish People's Philharmonic Chorus, NYC, May 21 ] ] [ [http://thejppc.org/_wsn/page2.html Jewish People's Philharmonic Chorus (JPPC) ] ]
* [http://select.nytimes.com/2006/05/27/nyregion/27about.html "Stubborn as His Kultur, the Old Man Lives" by Dan Barry, "
New York Times", 27 May 2006.]
* [http://www.yiddishvilnius.com/newsletter_11.html Vilnius University Award]
* [http://www.raoulwallenberg.net/?en/press/1216.htm "Editor Strives to Save Yiddish Journal"]
* [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C01E5DB1339F937A35757C0A9629C8B63&fta=y NYTimes Conversation With Goldberg]
* [http://www.kinderland.org/sylvanlake/pictures/hopnobbing/1949paulrobeson1.htm Goldberg and
* [http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/llt/49/05reiter.html Goldberg's Canadian Intro to Communism]
* [http://www.vote-smart.org/speech_detail.php?speech_id=45037&keyword=&phrase=&contain=/ Nadler's Speech]
* [http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3253318,00.html "Fight To Save Yiddish"]
* [http://www.kinderland.org/campkinderland/kinderlandhymn/kinderlandhymn.htm Kinderland Hymn]
* [http://dlib.nyu.edu:8083/tamwagead/servlet/SaxonServlet?source=/ohal.xml&style=/saxon01t2002.xsl&part=body NYU oral history archives of Itche Goldberg interviews; available to public]
* [http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/baltsun/access/681958381.html?dids=681958381:681958381&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Aug+22%2C+2004&author=David+Kohn&pub=The+Sun&desc=Working+to+nurture+a+language+ Baltimore Sun interview]
* [http://archives.econ.utah.edu/archives/marxism/2007w03/msg00134.htm Paul Buehle on Goldberg, superb read]
* [http://www.jewishcurrents.org/2006-nov-stillman.htm Goldberg on Khayim Zhitlovsky]
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