name = Escolar
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Actinopterygii
ordo = Perciformes
familia = Gempylidae
genus = "Lepidocybium"
genus_authority = Gill, 1862
species = "L. flavobrunneum"
binomial = "Lepidocybium flavobrunneum"
binomial_authority = (Smith, 1843)
The escolar, "Lepidocybium flavobrunneum", is a snake mackerel, the only species in the genus "Lepidocybium". It is found in deep (200–885 m) tropical and temperate waters around the world.

It is also marketed as "butterfish".


The escolar is dark brown in colour, growing darker with age until it is quite black. It is a fast-swimming fish with a prominent lateral keel and multiple finlets. It grows up to 2 m in length.


Escolar is consumed in several European and Asian countries, as well as in the USA, sometimes raw as sushi or sashimi. It may be sold as "white tuna" - a term also used for the albacore - or as "super white tuna" to distinguish it from the albacore. [ [ Miami New Times by Jen Karetnick February 2001 "The Great White Tuna"] ] Escolar is also sold misleadingly as "butterfish", "oilfish" and "Hawaiian butter fish"; in Hawaii and Fiji, it is known as walu. Like oilfish, a related species with similar consumption consequences, escolar is also sometimes deceptively sold under the name of an entirely different species of fish, most commonly "codfish" or "orange roughy".

Effects of consumption

Like its relative the oilfish ("Ruvettus pretiosus"), it cannot metabolize the wax esters (Gempylotoxin) naturally found in its diet, which accumulates to give an oil content in the muscle meat of 18–21%. These wax esters may rapidly cause gastrointestinal symptoms following consumption; however, these effects are usually short lived.

The gastrointestinal symptoms, called "keriorrhoea", caused by these wax esters may include oily orange diarrhea, discharge, or leakage from the rectum that may smell of mineral oil. The discharge can stain clothing and occur without warning 30 minutes to 36 hours after consuming the fish. The oil may pool in the rectum and cause frequent urges for bowel movements due to its lubricant qualities and may be accidentally discharged by the passing of gas. Symptoms may occur over a period of one or more days. Other symptoms may include stomach cramps, loose bowel movements, diarrhea, headaches, nausea, and vomiting.

To minimize the risk of symptoms, strict control of portion size is recommended as well as preparation methods that remove some of the oil (e.g. grilling). Portions should be no greater than 6 ounces.


For these reasons, escolar has been banned from consumption in Japan since 1977, as the Japanese government considers it toxic. [ [ Marian Burros, New York Times, March 10, 1999, "A Fish Puts Chefs in a Quandary"] ] [ European Food Safety Authority, "Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain on a request from the Commission related to the toxicity of fishery products belonging to the family of Gempylidae" (August 2004)] ] It has also been banned in Italy. In 1999, the Swedish and Danish National Food Administrations informed fish trade associations and fish importing companies about the problems escolar and related fish could cause if not prepared properly and issued recommendations.

In early 2007 after a public outcry and receiving consumer complaints about mislabeled fish and conducting an investigation, the Hong Kong government's Centre for Food Safety recommended that escolar not be used for catering purposes, advised clear labeling and identification of fish species before sale, purchase of fish from reliable sources, and recommended that consumers become aware of the possible health effects of consumption of escolar, oilfish, and related species. The Hong Kong government has established a working group comprised of members of the academia, trade and consumer group to prepare guidelines for assisting the trade and consumers in identifying relevant species of fish.

In the United States, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, after receiving complaints about diarrhea associated with escolar consumption, issued a bulletin recommending against import of the fish in the early 1990s. However, the FDA backed away from this recommendation and withdrew the bulletin several years later after deciding the fish was nontoxic and nonlethal. Currently, the FDA informally recommends that "Escolar should not be marketed in interstate commerce." [ [ U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, April 2006, "Managing Food Safety:A Manual for the Voluntary Use of HACCP Principles for Operators of Food Service and Retail Establishments, Annex 2 (Seafood References)"] ]

In mid-2007, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, after investigating cases of diarrhea caused by mislabeled fish, decided not to ban escolar or oilfish but instead issued a fact sheet noting the potential adverse effects of consumption and recommending that consumers speak with their retailer, verify fish species and consume the fish in small portion size using preparation methods that reduce oil content.


* [ U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, January 2008, Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook ("The Bad Bug Book"), Chapter 45, "Gempylotoxin"]
* [ A.J. Daulerio, Radar Online, February 12, 2008, "Dining Dangers - Bottom Feeder: The popular fish that might ruin your evening--and your clothes"]
* [ KNBC4 TV LA, November 7, 2002, "Mystery On The Menu: Could A Popular Dish Make You Sick? (Previously Banned Escolar Makes Restaurant Return)"]
* [ P. Berman, et al, 59(22) S. African Med J. 791, "Keriorrhoea--the passage of oil per rectum--after ingestion of marine wax esters" (1981)]
* [ December 2004, Chris Anderson, Seafood Business Magazine, December 2004 "Product Spotlight: Escolar (In the right hands, this oily whitefish has overcome its undeserved stigma)"]
* [ discussion of symptoms of escolar consumption]
* [ Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, "Canadians fall ill after eating mislabelled oily fish" (February 23, 2007)]
* [ Canadian Food Inspection Agency: "Facts on Escolar" (May 2007)]
* [ The Standard (Hong Kong), "Fury rises over fish label row" (January 25, 2007)]
* [ The Standard (Hong Kong), "Label mistake revealed in oilfish saga" (January 29, 2007)]
* [ Hong Kong Centre for Food Safety, Press Release, "Fish Products Should be Sold with Clear Labels" (January 2007)]
* [ Hong Kong Centre for Food Safety, "Risk in Brief: Oily Diarrhoea (Keriorrhoea) after Fish Consumption" (March 2007)]
* [ Hong Kong Centre for Food Safety, "Food Alerts: Complaints of Oily Diarrhoea after Consuming Certain Types of Marine Fish" (March 2007)]
* [ Washington State Department of Health, epiTrends, Scombroid and Gastroenteritis Associated with Consumption of Escolar (2004)]
* [ Queensland, Australia Health, Food Industry Fact Sheet, "Escolar and rudderfish not suitable for catering (2004)"]
* [ Advisory Letter, United Kingdom Food Standards Agency, "Potential Health Issues Associated with the Consumption of Escolar" (2003)]
* [$FILE/cdi2603l.pdf Yohannes, et. al, Australia Department of Public Health and Ageing, Communicable Diseases Intelligence, vol. 26, no. 3, "An outbreak of gastrointestinal illness associated with the consumption of escolar fish" (September 2002)]
* [$FILE/cdi2603k.pdf Rodney C. Givey, Australia Department of Public Health and Ageing, Communicable Diseases Intelligence, vol. 26, no. 3, "Illness associated with rudderfish/escolar in South Australia" (September 2002)]
* [$FILE/cdi2603i.pdf Shadbolt, et. al, Australia Department of Public Health and Ageing, Communicable Diseases Intelligence, vol. 26, no.3, "Editorial: Diarrhoea associated with consumption of escolar (rudderfish)" (September 2002)]
* [ University of California National Seafood HACCP Alliance for Training and Education, Compendium of Fish and Fishery Product Processes, Hazards, and Controls, Chapter 26, "Natural Toxins" (2005)]
* [ Robin Rainsfeld and Rob Patronite, New York Magazine, "The 'It' Fish" (May 15, 2005)]
* [ Becks & Posh (food blog), "Escolar Fish/Oil Fish: Not my kind of Dish" (November 2006)]
* [ Beyond Salmon (food blog), "Escolar -- a fish with a caveat" (March 2006)]


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