Alexander Kielland

Alexander Kielland

Infobox Writer
name = Alexander L. Kielland


imagesize = 200px
caption = Kielland in later years
pseudonym =
birthname = Alexander Lange Kielland
birthdate = birth date|1849|2|18|df=y
birthplace = Stavanger, Norway
deathdate = death date and age|1906|4|6|1849|2|18|df=y
deathplace = Bergen, Norway
occupation = Novelist, short story writer, playwright, essayist, businessman, and politician.
nationality = Norwegian
movement = Realism

Alexander Lange Kielland (pronounced|ɑlɛksɑndər ˈlɑŋːə ˈçɛlːɑn) (18 February 1849 – 6 April 1906) was one of the most famous Norwegian authors of the 19th century. Born in Stavanger, Norway, he grew up in a rich merchant family. [ [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~kielland/slekt/per00049.htm Material on Kielland] ] Even though he was born rich he had a sincere affection for the less fortunate. And he treated his workers well when he was a factory owner. He remained a spokesman for the weak and a critic of society throughout his time as a writer. Among his most famous works are the novels "Garman & Worse" (1880), "Skipper Worse" (1882), and "Poison" ("Gift", 1883). His short stories are also well known.

Kielland was the younger brother of Norwegian landscape painter Kitty Lange Kielland, and their mutual interactions were important to shaping both as artists. [cite web|url=http://www.artsmia.org/mirror-of-nature/the-artists.cfm?lng=0&artist=kielland|title= Kitty Lange Kielland|accessdate= 2008-03-23|work= A Mirror Of Nature: Nordic Landscape Painting 1840-1910|publisher= Minneapolis Institute of Arts]

In "Gift" ("Poison", 1883) Kielland debates the hunger for Latin which Norwegian teachers had in this area of time. The story has its peak when a young boy called Marius, is lying on his deathbed, repeating Latin grammar.

It has been debated why Kielland ended his career as a writer so early. Some believe that he was so much of a realist that he could not deal with new-romantic tendencies in Norwegian literature at the end of the 19th century. A more probable reason is that he chose to focus on his politic career. Tor Obrestad's biography of Alexander L. Kielland opens up thoughts about Kielland dying from obesity. He had several heart-attacks, he constantly gained weight and he couldn't control his great passion for food.

From 1891 he was the burgomaster of his hometown, Stavanger. In 1902 he was designated county governor of Møre og Romsdal.

He is one of the so-called "The Four Greats" in Norwegian literature, along with Henrik Ibsen, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson and Jonas Lie, although the term was originally coined only as a marketing trick. ["The Literary Masters of Norway, with Samples of Their Works"; introduced by Carl Henrik Grøndahl and Nina Tjomsland; Tanum-Norli, Oslo 1978]

Publications

hort stories

* "Novelletter", 1879 [ Available for free download on the Internet at Project Gutenberg: [http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/1/4/5/9/14593/14593-h/14593-h.htm Norse Tales and Sketches] ]
* "Nye novelletter", 1880
* "To Novelletter fra Danmark", 1882

Novels

* "Garman & Worse", 1880 - [ English translation 1890: "Garman and Worse". Available for free download on the Internet at Project Gutenberg: [http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/1/5/8/6/15864/15864-h/15864-h.htm Garman and Worse] ] ["Garman & Worse " is also available in the original Norwegian on Project Runeberg at [http://runeberg.org/skipwors/ "Garman og Worse" no icon] ]
* "Arbeidsfolk", 1881
* "Else", 1881
* "Skipper Worse", 1882 ["Skipper Worse" was published in English translation in 1885 and later as one of the "Harvard Classic collection."] ["Skipper Worse" is also available in the original Norwegian on Project Runeberg at [http://runeberg.org/skipwors/ Skipper Worse ] ]
* "Gift", 1883
* "Fortuna", 1884
* "Sne", 1886
* "Sankt Hans Fest", 1887
* "Jacob", 1891

Plays

* "Paa Hjemvejen", 1878
* "Hans Majestæts Foged", 1880
* "Det hele er Ingenting", 1880
* "Tre par", 1886
* "Bettys Formynder", 1887
* "Professoren", 1888

Essays

* "Forsvarssagen", 1890
* "Menneker og Dyr", 1891
* "Omkring Napoleon", 1905 [ English translation 1907: "Napoleon's Men and Methods"]

References and notes

External links

*


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