- Anti-tank rifle
TOCrightAn anti-tank rifle is a
rifledesigned to penetrate the armour of vehicles, particularly tanks. The usefulness of rifles for this purpose ran from the introduction of tanks into the Second World War, when they were rendered obsolete. Vehicle armour became too thick to be penetrated by rigid projectiles from rifles that could be carried by a single soldier, and anti-tank rifles were replaced with shaped chargeweapons of which the most well-known is the bazooka.
The tug of war between armor and projectiles had been developing for a long while among naval vessels - since the advent of the Ironclad. It wasn't until soldiers met armored vehicles on land that the conflict of infantry firearms and armor began. The introduction of armored cars and tanks resulted in the development of the first
anti-tankweapons. Among the weapons used against the early armored vehicles were high powered rifles.
High powered rifles had appeared in the 1800s for
big-game hunters. The anti-tank rifle would follow the same route - a large bullet with a high velocity and the ability to penetrate armor.
World War I
The first tanks, beginning with the British Mark I, launched against the German trenches in
World War Iwere nearly impregnable to ordinary rifle fire. Most armored cars were similarly invulnerable, but troops rarely faced armored cars, as they could not navigate the landscape of trench warfare very well. Though tanks and armoured cars were vulnerable to artillery, mortars, and grenades, infantry was at a significant disadvantage when facing armored fighting vehicles, since they had no effective direct fireweapon.
The first attempt at boosting penetrating power was the so-called '
reversed bullet'. This used the same cartridge and bullet as the regular round, but the bullet was reversed and an increased propelling charge was used.
The next development was a special armour-piercing bullet, the
K bullet(in German "Patrone SmK Kurz 7.92 mm"), which too could be fired from the regular infantry rifle. It had an increased propelling charge and a steel cored bullet. This had about a 30% chance of penetrating the 8 mm armour of current tanks if it struck the armour at a perpendicular angle.
The K bullet round was more expensive to produce, and therefore it was generally only issued to snipers and other advanced marksmen, who could use it more effectively. The ordinary infantryman had to make do with the reversed bullets which were far less effective and had to be used closer to the target. Other anti-tank weapons such as grenades, mortars, or cannon were preferred. Both types of round damaged the rifles. In the first place there was shortened life through high barrel wear. Secondly, the higher pressure created in the chamber would jam the bolt and only hammering at the stuck bolt would open it. This could lead to the extractor claw failing to extract the cartridge, only breaking off the cartridge rim and leaving it stuck in the gun. The strain of firing the increased charge could also burst the chamber of weaker and older rifles, at best destroying the rifle, at worst injuring or killing the rifleman. For these reasons, the K-bullet and reversed bullet were not popular with the troops. Nevertheless, it gave the infantry a chance to stop a tank in an emergency, or at least injure or kill some of the crew if a bullet penetrated.
Even as the rounds were introduced, tanks were being designed and built with thicker armour rendering these rounds largely ineffective, though they remained in use against the older designs and armoured cars. The first purpose designed infantry
anti-tankrifle was designed by Germany. This large-calibre rifle was capable of penetrating the armour of these new generations of tanks and allowed a chance at stopping them. Other techniques were still preferred. The high recoil of the rifle was very hard on the firer, sometimes breaking the collar boneor dislocating the shoulder. Although the rifle was unique to its role, it was a development of the Mauser rifles and high-powered British sporting rifles that had preceded it. The calibre of roughly 12-13 mm was not unusual either; some 0.5 inch guns having been fielded in land warfare.
During WWI, a half-inch high velocity round was being developed in the US at the same time for use against aircraft. It would be used with the Browning-designed .50 calibre machine gun. This round was based on current US
.30-06calibre infantry ammunition. When word of the German anti-tank shell spread, there was some debate as to if it should be copied and used as a base for the new machine gun cartridge. However, after some analysis the German ammunition was ruled out, as its performance was inferior to the modified Springfield .30-06 round and was semi-rimmed, making it difficult to feed into an automatic weapon. The Browning M2 .50 cal machine gun would, however, go on to function as an anti-armour machine gun.
World War II
At the start of World War II, most nations had an anti-tank rifle based on a high velocity large calibre round (eg. the British
Boys Anti-tank Rifle). These were effective at the start of the war against the early tank designs ( light tanks like the German Panzer Iand Panzer II). As armor became thicker on the newer models, the effectiveness of a man-portable rifle lessened. At first small cannons up to 20 mm calibre were used, but the anti-tank role soon required more powerful weapons which were based on the application of chemical energy in the form of the shaped chargeanti-tank rifle grenade. To these were added rocket launchers, recoilless rifles such as the Panzerfaustand rocket-propelled grenades such as the bazooka. Some anti-tank rifles, like the Finnish L-39, were still used by snipers to harass the enemy, like firing phosphorus bullets at tanks' open hatches, or to smoke an enemy sniper out of his position.
PTRS-41and PTRDof World War II vintage were used by North Korean and Chinese forces during the Korean Waras they lacked more modern infantry anti-tank weapons.
The weapon is the conceptual ancestor of anti-tank weapons wielded by modern infantry, and both large-calibre
sniper rifles and anti-materiel rifles owe some part of their design heritage to it.
Some examples of anti-tank rifles include:
Gewehr 98with Patrone SmK Kurz 7.92 mm
13.2 mm Rifle Anti-Tank (Mauser): WWII
Type 97 20 mm AT Rifle
** Panzerbüchse 38
** Panzerbüchse 39
Anti-tank rifle, model 35
** 14.5 mm PTRS-41 (Simonov)
** 14.5 mm PTRD-41 (Degtyarev)
Solothurn 7.92 mm MSS 41
** 20 mm
** 20 mm
** 20 mm
Rifle, Anti-Tank, .55 in, Boys
* [http://www.antitank.co.uk Anti-Tank Rifle History and Collecting]
* [http://members.rogers.com/georgeparada/articles/pzb.htm German Anti-Tank Rifles - Panzerbüchse]
* [http://www.rememuseum.org.uk/arms/heavy/armhhat.htm Hand Held Anti Tank Weapons]
* [http://www.jaegerplatoon.net/AT_RIFLES1.htm L-39]
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