African swine fever virus

African swine fever virus

Taxobox
color = violet
name = "African swine fever virus"



image_caption = Electron micrograph of a virus particle
virus_group = i
familia = "Asfarviridae"
genus = "Asfivirus"
species = "African swine fever virus"

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of African swine fever. ASFV is a large double-stranded DNA virus which replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells and is the only member of the Asfarviridae family.cite book |chapterurl=http://www.horizonpress.com/avir|author=Dixon et al|year=2008|chapter=African Swine Fever Virus|title=Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology|publisher=Caister Academic Press|id= [http://www.horizonpress.com/avir ISBN 978-1-904455-22-6] ] ASFV infects domestic pigs, warthogs and bushpigs, as well as soft ticks. The virus causes a lethal haemorraghic disease in domestic pigs, some isolates can cause death of animals within as little as a week after infection. In all of the other species the virus causes no obvious disease. ASFV is endemic to Sub-Saharan Africa and exists in the wild through a cycle of infection between ticks and wild pigs/bushpigs/warthogs. ASFV was first described after European settlers brought pigs into areas endemic with ASFV and as such is an example of an 'emerging infection'.

The clinical symptoms of ASFV are very similar to classical swine fever virus and the two diseases normally have to be distinguished by laboratory diagnosis.

African swine fever was restricted to the continent that bears its name until 1957 when the disease was reported in Lisbon, Portugal. A further outbreak occurred here in 1960. Subsequent to these initial introductions the disease became established in the Iberian peninsula and sporadic outbreaks occurred in France, Belgium and other European countries during the 1980s. Both Spain and Portugal had managed to eradicate the disease by the mid 1990s through a slaughter policy. During the late 1970s ASFV crossed the Atlantic Ocean and outbreaks were reported in some Caribbean islands, including Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Major outbreaks of ASFV in Africa are regularly reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (previously called l'office international des épizooties (OIE)). The most recent outbreak of ASFV outside of Africa started at the beginning of 2007 in Georgia (country) and has since spread to the neighbouring countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Russia.

The appearance of ASF in the Western hemisphere at the same time as the emergence of AIDS led to some interest in whether the two were related and a report appeared in the Lancet supporting this in 1986. However, AIDS is now known to be caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), no link between ASFV and AIDS has been proven or is suspected.

Virus structure and replication

s modulate interaction of virus-infected cells and extracellular virions with host components.cite book |chapterurl=http://www.horizonpress.com/avir|author=Dixon et al|year=2008|chapter=African Swine Fever Virus|title=Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology|publisher=Caister Academic Press|id= [http://www.horizonpress.com/avir ISBN 978-1-904455-22-6] ]

ee also

*Animal viruses
*Virology

References

External links

* OIE Animal Disease Data: http://www.oie.int/eng/maladies/fiches/a_A120.htm
* Institute for Animal Health Factfile: http://www.iah.ac.uk/disease/AfSwFe.shtml
* Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Disease Factsheet: http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/diseases/notifiable/asf/index.htm


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