Latinfor "expert") is the title given to Roman Catholic theologians who are present to give advice at an Ecumenical council. At the most recent, the Second Vatican Council, some "periti" (the plural form) accompanied individual Bishops or groups of Bishops from various countries. Others were formally appointed as advisers to the whole Council. Father Joseph Ratzingernow Pope Benedict XVIserved as the peritus to Josef Cardinal Frings, Archbishop of Cologne, Germany, while Hans Küngwas a "peritus" for the Council, rather than for an individual Bishop. The influential German theologian Father Karl RahnerS.J. served as peritus to Franz Cardinal Konigof Vienna. John Henry Newman refused an invitation to be a "peritus" at the First Vatican Council.
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