- Earl of Lincoln
Earl of Lincoln is a title that has been created eight times in the
Peerage of England. It was probably created fot the first time around 1143 as William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel, is mentioned as Earl of Lincoln in 1143 in two charters for the abbey of Affligem, representing his wife Adeliza of Louvain, former wife of King Henry I. It was created for a second time by King Stephen sometime between 1143 and 1155 for William de Roumare. However, on his death in 1155 the title reverted to the crown. Stephen again created the title in 1147 for Gilbert de Gant, but on his death in 1156 it reverted to the crown. It was created for a fourth time in 1217 for Ranulph de Blondeville. When he died in 1232 the earldom reverted to the crown.
It was created for a fifth time in 1232 for John de Lacy. He was married to one of the nieces of the Earl of the 1217 creation. His grandson, the third Earl, married Margaret Longespee. Their daughter Alice inherited the earldom. She was the wife of
Thomas Plantagenet, 2nd Earl of Lancaster. They had no children and the earldom reverted to the crown on Alice's death in 1348. The following year it was revived for her brother-in-law Henry of Grosmont, who was later created Duke of Lancaster. It became extinct on his death in 1361.
The earldom was created for a seventh time in 1467 for John de la Pole. He was the eldest son of
John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk, and Elizabeth of York. He predeceased his father and the title became extinct on his death in 1487. The title was created for the eighth time in 1525 for Henry Brandon. He was the only son of Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, by his wife Mary Tudor. He died unmarried and childless in 1534 when the title became extinct.
The title was created for the ninth time in 1572 for the naval commander Edward Clinton, 9th Baron Clinton (see the
Baron Clintonfor earlier history of the family). He served as Lord High Admiralunder Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I. He was succeeded by his son, the second Earl. He represented Launceston and Lancashire in the House of Commons. His son, the third Earl, sat as Member of Parliamentfor Great Grimsby and Lincolnshire. In 1610 he was summoned to the House of Lordsthrough a writ of accelerationin his father's junior title of Baron Clinton.
His great-grandson, the fifth Earl, died without surviving issue in 1692 when the earldom and barony separated. The barony fell into
abeyancebetween his aunts (see the Baron Clinton for further history of this title). He was succeeded in the earldom by his second cousin once removed, the sixth Earl. He was the grandson of Sir Edward Clinton, second son of the second Earl. His son, the seventh Earl, served as Paymaster of the Forces, as Constable of the Towerand as Cofferer of the Household. Lord Lincoln married Lucy Sydney (d. 1736), daughter of Robert Sydney, 2nd Earl of Leicester.(see the Earl of Chichesterfor earlier history of the Pelham family).
His eldest son, the eighth Earl, died as a child and was succeeded by his younger brother, the ninth Earl. He was Cofferer of the Household and
Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshireand Cambridgeshire. He married his first cousin Catherine Pelham (d. 1760), daughter and heiress of Henry Pelham. In 1756 his uncle the Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne was created Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, with remainder to his nephew Lord Lincoln, and on the Duke's death in 1768 Lincoln succeeded as second Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne according to the special remainder. He assumed by Royal license the additional surname of Pelham the same year.
The Duke's two elder sons, George Pelham-Clinton, Lord Clinton, and
Henry Pelham-Clinton, Earl of Lincoln, both predeceased him. He was therefore succeeded by his third son, the third Duke. He was a Major-Generalin the Army. On his early death the titles passed to his son, the fourth Duke. He served as Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire from 1809 to 1839. He was succeeded by his son, the fifth Duke. He was a prominent politician and held office as Chief Secretary for Ireland, as Secretary of State for the Coloniesand as Secretary of State for War. His eldest son, the sixth Duke, briefly represented Newark in the House of Commons. The Duke married the wealthy heiress Henrietta Adele, daughter of Henry Thomas Hope.
He was succeeded by his eldest son, the seventh Duke. He died childless and was succeeded by his younger brother, the eighth Duke. In 1881 he assumed by Royal license the additional surname of Hope on inheriting the substantial Hope estates through his paternal grandmother. On his death the titles passed to his only son, the ninth Duke. He had two daughters but no sons and was succeeded by his third cousin, the tenth Duke. He was the great-grandson of Lord Charles Pelham-Clinton, second son of the fourth Duke. He died unmarried in December 1988, having held the titles for only a month. On his death the dukedom became extinct while he was succeeded in the earldom by his distant relative, the eighteenth Earl. He was a descendant of the Hon. Sir Henry Fynes-Clinton, third son of the second Earl. Lord Lincoln lived in
Australiaand was informed by a British newspaper that he had inherited the title. As of 2007 the titles are held by his grandson, the nineteenth Earl, who succeeded in 2001.
Several other members of the Clinton family have also gained distinction. The Hon. George Clinton, youngest son of the sixth Earl of Lincoln, was a naval commander, politician and colonial administrator. His son General Sir Henry Clinton was Commander-in-Chief of the British in North America from 1778 to 1782. His sons General Sir William Henry Clinton and Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Clinton were also successful military commanders.
Lord Edward Pelham-Clinton, second son of the fifth Duke, was a soldier and courtier.
The seat of the Dukes of Newcastle was Clumber House near
Worksop, Nottinghamshire. However, the house was demolished in 1938. The surrounding estate was sold to the National Trust in 1946 and is now a country park open to the public.
An extensive collection of papers of the Pelham-Clinton Dukes of Newcastle-under-Lyne has been deposited at the department of
Manuscripts and Special Collections, The University of Nottingham.
Earls of Lincoln, First Creation (1143)
*William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel, 1st Earl of Lincoln (c. 1109-1176)
Earls of Lincoln, Second Creation (after 1143)
William de Roumare, Earl of Lincoln(1096-1155) (reverted to crown)
Earls of Lincoln, Third Creation (1147)
Gilbert de Gant, Earl of Lincoln(1120-1156) (reverted to crown)
Earls of Lincoln, Fourth Creation (1217)
Ranulph de Blondeville, 4th Earl of Chester(1172-1232) (reverted to crown)
Earls of Lincoln, Fifth Creation (1232)
John de Lacy, 1st Earl of Lincoln(1192–1240)
Edmund de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln(1230–1257)
Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln(1251–1311)
Alice Plantagenet, 4th Countess of Lincoln(1281–1348) (reverted to crown)
Earls of Lincoln, Sixth Creation (1349)
*see Duke of Lancaster (1351 creation)
Earls of Lincoln, Seventh Creation (1467)
John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln(1462-1487)
Earls of Lincoln, Eighth Creation (1525)
Henry Brandon, 1st Earl of Lincoln(1516-1534)
Earls of Lincoln, Ninth Creation (1572)
Edward Clinton, 1st Earl of Lincoln(1512-1585)
Henry Clinton, 2nd Earl of Lincoln(1539-1616)
Thomas Clinton, 3rd Earl of Lincoln(1568-1619)
Theophilus Clinton, 4th Earl of Lincoln(1600-1667)
Edward Clinton, 5th Earl of Lincoln(d.1692)
Francis Clinton, 6th Earl of Lincoln(1635-1693)
Henry Clinton, 7th Earl of Lincoln(1684-1728)
George Clinton, 8th Earl of Lincoln(1718-1730)
*Henry Pelham-Clinton, 9th Earl of Lincoln (1720-1794) (succeeded as Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne in 1768)
Dukes of Newcastle-under-Lyne (1756)
*Henry Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, 9th Earl of Lincoln (1720-1794)
*Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle, 10th Earl of Lincoln (1752-1795)
*Henry Pelham-Clinton, 4th Duke of Newcastle, 11th Earl of Lincoln (1785-1851)
*Henry Pelham-Clinton, 5th Duke of Newcastle, 12th Earl of Lincoln (1811-1864)
*Henry Pelham-Clinton, 6th Duke of Newcastle, 13th Earl of Lincoln (1834-1879)
*Henry Pelham-Clinton, 7th Duke of Newcastle, 14th Earl of Lincoln (1864-1928)
*Francis Pelham-Clinton-Hope, 8th Duke of Newcastle, 15th Earl of Lincoln (1866-1941)
*Henry Pelham-Clinton-Hope, 9th Duke of Newcastle, 16th Earl of Lincoln (1907-1988)
*Edward Pelham-Clinton, 10th Duke of Newcastle, 17th Earl of Lincoln (1920-1988)
Earls of Lincoln (1572; Reverted)
*Edward Horace Fiennes-Clinton, 18th Earl of Lincoln (1913-2001)
*Robert Edward Fiennes-Clinton, 19th Earl of Lincoln (b. 1972)
Heir Presumptiveis the present holder's brother the Hon. William Roy Fiennes-Clinton (b. 1980)
Duke of Lancaster
Duke of Suffolk
Earl of Chichester
Duke of Newcastle
*Kidd, Charles, Williamson, David (editors). "Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage" (1990 edition). New York: St Martin's Press, 1990.
* [http://www.angeltowns.com/town/peerage/ Leigh Rayment's Peerage Page]
* [http://www.thepeerage.com/ www.thepeerage.com]
* [http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/mss/collections/family-estate/collections/newcastle.phtml Biographies of the Dukes of Newcastle-under-Lyne and their predecessors, with links to online catalogues, from Manuscripts and Special Collections at The University of Nottingham]
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