- Russo-Swedish War (1590–1595)
The Russo-Swedish War of 1590–1595 was instigated by
Boris Godunovin the hope of recovering territory along the Gulf of Finlandlost to Swedenduring the previous Livonian War.
As soon as the
Truce of Plussaexpired early in 1590, a large Russian army led by Godunov and his sickly brother-in-law, Fyodor I of Russia, marched from Moscowtowards Novgorod. On 18 Januarythey crossed the Narva Riverand laid siege to the Swedish castle of Narva. Another important fortress, Jama (Jamburg), fell to Russian forces within two weeks. Simultaneously, the Russians ravaged Estoniaas far as Tallinnand Finlandas far as Turku.Fact|date=May 2007
25 February, a local Swedish governor was compelled to sign an armistice, which obliged Sweden to surrender the territories won by the Treaty of Plussa— namely Jama, Koporye, and Ivangorod. This peace settlement displeased John III of Sweden, who sent a fleet to take hold of Ivangorod, but this attempt to besiege the fortress was checked by a Russian castellan. Matters then remained quiet until summer 1591, when the Swedes struck against Gdov, capturing a local governor, Prince Vladimir Dolgorukov.
The other war theatre was
Eastern Karelia, where the Swedes sacked Kola and other Russian settlements bordering the White Sea. A raiding party lead by Vesainen, the son of the Finnish peasant chief Pekka Anttidestroyed the Pechenga Monasteryon December 25, 1589, killing 50 monks and 65 lay brothers. He then turned his troops to Kola Fjord but could not manage to destroy the Kola Fortress due lack of men. Instead he captured and burned Kandalaksha(Kantalahti) and a small Russian settlement in Kem. Again, due lack of men, he could not capture the Solovetsky Monasteryon the Solovetsky Islands.
Godunov's government gradually overcame these setbacks, as Prince
Volkonskywas sent to pacify Karelia, while the noblest Russian generals — Bogdan Belsky, Fyodor Mstislavskyand Prince Trubetskoy— devastated Finland. After that, the war settled into indecisive skirmishing from which it would not subsequently emerge. Three years elapsed before Sweden agreed to sign the Treaty of Tyavzino(Täyssinä), which recognized Russian conquests and restored the borders predating the Livonian War.
In the Peace Treaty of Täyssinä [original text available in State Archive in Helsinki and also in Finnish web sides under title: Valtionarkisto Valtiosopimkset Täyssinän Rauha 1595 in Swedish, (with Finnish transliteration) Russian and German languages] Russia had to cede Northern Estonia to Narva River to Sweden. In addition the border was drawn from Narva to Varangi (Näätämö) Fjord on Arctic Sea.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.