- Arts Council of Great Britain
The Arts Council of Great Britain was a
non-departmental public bodydedicated to the promotion of the fine artsin Great Britain. The Arts Council of Great Britain was divided in 1994 to form the Arts Council of England (now Arts Council England}, the Scottish Arts Council, and the Arts Council of Wales. At the same time the National Lotterywas established and these three arts councils, plus the Arts Council of Northern Ireland, became distribution bodies.
In 1940, during the
Second World War, a Council for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts (CEMA), was appointed to help promote and maintain British culture. Chaired by Lord De La Warr, President of the Board of Education, the Council was government-funded and after the war was renamed the Arts Council of Great Britain.
Royal Charterwas granted in 1946, followed by another in 1967. The latter provided for functions in Scotlandand Walesto be conducted by two almostFact|date=February 2007 autonomouscommittees known as the Scottish and Welsh Arts Councils – the basis for today’s Scottish Arts Council and Arts Council of Wales.
The Council's first Chairman was
John Maynard Keyneswho used his influence in Government to secure a high level of funding despite Britain's poor finances following the war. The majority of this funding was directed to organisations with which Keynes had close ties such as the Royal Opera Houseand was restricted to Central London. Keynes used his political influence to ensure that the Arts Council reported directly to the Treasury rather than an Arts Minister or the Education Department as had been the case with CEMA, establishing the principle of an 'arms length' relationship between UK Arts policy and the government of the day. After Keyne's death Government funding was reduced but the Arts Council received wide recognition for its contribution to the Festival of Britainthanks to the new Chairman Kenneth Clark. Artworks commissioned by the Council for the Festival were retained to form the basis of the Arts Council Collection.
Harold WilsonGovernment of 1964-70 the Arts Council enjoyed a Golden Agethanks to the close relationship between Chairman Arnold Goodmanand the Arts Minister Jennie Lee. This period saw the Council establish a network of arts organisations across the country as regular client organisations and a programme of touring exhibitions and performances. To support the Council’s responsibilities in relation to the visual arts, it opened the Hayward Galleryon London's South Bankin 1968 as a home for its major exhibitions and the base for the Arts Council Collection. Since 1987, the gallery has been independently managed by the South Bank Centre. In 2003 sculpture in the Collection was moved to a base in Yorkshire.
During the 1970s and 1980s the Arts Council came under attack for being elitist and politically biased, in particular from the prominent Conservative Party minister
Norman Tebbit. The Government grant to the Council was capped effecting a real terms reduction in funding though it was argued that any shortfall would be made up by increased sponsorship from the private sector. William Rees-Moggwas a political appointment as Chairman and proposed slimming down the Council's responsibilities. This led to a series of clashes with prominent figures from the Arts such as Peter Hall who resigned from the Council in protest. In 1987 the restructure inspired by Rees-Mogg cut by half the number of organisations receiving Arts Council funding. During the same period the Arts Council began encouraging a greater level of corporate sponsorship for the arts.
The Arts Council of Great Britain was divided in 1994 to form the
Arts Council of England, Scottish Arts Counciland Arts Council of Wales. At the same time the National Lotterywas established and the Arts Council of Englandbecame one of the distribution bodies.
Chairmen of the Arts Council
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