- Language poets
The Language poets (or L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E poets, after the magazine that bears that name) are an "
avant garde" group or tendency in United States poetrythat emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s. In developing their poetics, members of the Language school took as their starting point the emphasis on method evident in the modernist tradition, particularly as represented by Gertrude Steinand Louis Zukofsky. Language poetry is also an example of poetic postmodernism. Its immediate postmodern precursors were the New American poets, a rubric which includes the New York School, the Black Mountain School, the Beat poets, and the San Francisco Renaissance.
While there is no such thing as a "typical" Language poem, certain aspects of the writing of language poets became heavily identified with this group:
writingthat actively challenged the "natural" presence of a speaker behind the text; writing that emphasized disjunctionand the materiality of the signifier; and prose poetry, especially in longer forms than had previously been favored by English language writers, and other nontraditional and usually nonnarrative forms.
Language poetry has been a controversial topic in American letters from the 1970s to the present. Even the
nameitself has been controversial: while a number of poets and critics have used the name of the journal to refer to the group, many others have chosen to use the term, when they used it at all, without the equals signs, while "language writing" and "language-centered writing" are also commonly used, and perhaps the most generic terms. Discussions of the politics of the name and nature of the movement may be found in Michael Greer's article, "Ideology and Theory in Recent Experimental Writing or, the Naming of 'Language Poetry,'" ["boundary 2", Vol. 16, No. 2/3 (Winter - Spring, 1989), pp. 335-355] and in Bob Perelman, "The Marginalization of Poetry," Lyn Hejinian, "The Language of Inquiry," Barrett Watten, "The Constructivist Moment," Ron Silliman, "The New Sentence", and Charles Bernstein, "My Way: Speeches and Poems." Online writing samples of many language poets can be found on internet sites, including blogs and sites maintained by authors and through gateways such as the Electronic Poetry Center, PennSound, and UbuWeb.
Language poetry emphasizes the reader's role in bringing meaning out of a work and came about, at least in part, in response to the sometimes uncritical use of expressive lyric sentiment among earlier poetry movements to which the Language poets felt a kinship. In the 1950s and '60s certain groups of poets had followed
William Carlos Williamsin his use of idiomaticAmerican English rather than what they considered the 'heightened,' or overtly poetic language favored by the New Criticismmovement. In particular New York Schoolpoets like Frank O'Haraand The Black Mountain group emphasized both speech and everyday language in their poetry and poetics. In contrast, some of the Language poets emphasized metonymy, synecdocheand extreme instances of paratactical structures in their compositions, which, even when employing everyday speech, created a far different texture. The result is often alien and difficult to understand at first glance, which is what Language poetry intends: for the reader to participate in creating the meaning of the poem. [See, for example, Ronald Johnson's "RADI OS" in [http://english.utah.edu/eclipse/projects/LANGUAGEn1/pictures/007.shtml L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E, volume 1] .]
With reference to earlier poetry movements, it would be important to note that both Watten's & Grenier's magazine This (and
This Pressthat Watten edited) along with the magazine "L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E", published work by notable Black Mountain poetssuch as Robert Creeleyand Larry Eigner. Silliman considers Language poetry to be a continuation (albeit incorporating a critique) of the earlier movements. [For an extended poetic meditation on form by Sillman, see the poem " [http://wings.buffalo.edu/epc/authors/silliman/wildform Wild Form] "] Watten has emphasized the discontinuity between the New American poets, whose writing, he argues, privileged self-expression however mediated through language, and the Language poets, who tend to downplay expression and see the poem as a construction in and of language itself. In contrast, Bernstein has emphasized the expressive possibilities of working with constructed, and even found, language.
Gertrude Stein, particularly in her writing after "
Tender Buttons," and Louis Zukofsky, in his book-length poem "A," are the modernist poets most influential on the Language school. In the postwar period, John Cage, Jackson Mac Low, and poets of the New York School( John Ashbery, Frank O'Hara, Ted Berrigan) and Black Mountain School ( Robert Creeley, Charles Olson, and Robert Duncan) are most recognizable as precursors to the Language poets. Many of these poets used procedural methods based on mathematical sequences and other logical organising devices to structure their poetry, and this practice proved highly useful to the language group. The application of process, especially at the level of the sentence, was to become the basic tenet of language praxis. The influence of Stein came from the fact that she was a writer who had frequently used language divorced from reference in her own writings. The language poets also drew on the philosophical works of Ludwig Wittgenstein, especially the concepts of language-games, meaning as use, and family resemblanceamong different uses being the solution to the Problem of universals.
History of language poetry
Early history of language poetry
There is more than one origin of this highly decentered movement. On the West Coast, an early seed of language poetry was the launch of "This" magazine, edited by Robert Grenier and Watten, in 1971. Coming out of New York, "L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E", edited by Andrews and Bernstein, ran from 1978 and 1982, and featured poetics, forums on writers in the movement, and themes such as "The Politics of Poetry" and "Reading Stein." Equally significant for the understanding of this movement of divergent, though interconnected, poetry practices that emerged in the 1970s was
Ron Silliman's poetry newsletter "Tottel's" ((1970-81) [available on-line at the "Eclipse" archive, link here: [http://english.utah.edu/eclipse/projects/TOTTELS/ "Tottel's Magazine"] ] , and Bruce Andrews's selection in a special issue of "Toopick" (1973), as well as Lyn Hejinian's editing of Tuumba Press and James Sherry's editing of ROOF magazine. The first significant collection of language-centered poetics was "The Politics of the Referent," edited by Steve McCafferyfor the Toronto-based publication, "Open Letter" (1977).
In an essay from the first issue of "This", Grenier declared: "I HATE SPEECH". Grenier's ironic statement (itself a speech act), was, in the context of the essay in which it occurred, along with a questioning attitude to the referentiality of language evidenced even in the magazine's title, later claimed by Ron Silliman, in the introduction to his anthology "In the American Tree," as an epochal moment--a rallying cry for a number of young U.S. poets who were increasingly dissatisfied with the poetry of the
Black Mountain poetsand Beat poets.
However, it was equally the range of contemporary poetries that focused on "language" in "This," "Tottel's," "L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E", and also in several other key publications and essays of the time, rather than a single declarative sentence, that established the field of discussion that would emerge as Language (or L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E) poetry.
Indeed, during the 1970s, a number of magazines emerged who published poets who would become associated with the Language movement. Some other literary magazines associated with the movement in the 1970s and 1980s included "A Hundred Posters" (edited by Alan Davies), "Big Deal," "Dog City," "Hills," "Là Bas," "MIAM," "Oculist Witnesses," "QU," and "Roof." "
Poetics Journal," which published writings in poetics and was edited by Lyn Hejinianand Barrett Watten, appeared from 1982 to 1998. Significant early gatherings of Language writing included Silliman's selection "The Dwelling Place: 9 Poets" in "Alcheringa," (1975) Bruce Andrews's selection in "Toopick," (1973) and Charles Bernstein's "A Language Sampler" in "The Paris Review"(1982)
Aside from magazines and presses, a number of poetry reading series, especially in New York, Washington, D.C. and San Francisco, were important venues for the performance of this new poetry and for the development of dialogue and collaboration among poets. Generally considered most important were the Ear Inn reading series in New York, founded in 1978 by Ted Greenwald and later organized through James Sherry's Segue Foundation and curated by Mitch Highfill, Jeanne Lance, Andrew Levy, Rob Fitterman, Laynie Brown, Alan Davies, and others; Folio Books in Washington, D.C., founded by Doug Lang; and the Grand Piano reading series in San Francisco, which was curated by
Barrett Watten, Ron Silliman, Tom Mandel, Rae Armantrout, Ted Pearson, Carla Harryman, and Steve Benson at various times.
Poets, some of whom have been mentioned above, who were associated with the first wave of Language poetry include:
Rae Armantrout, Steve Benson, Abigail Child, Clark Coolidge, Tina Darragh, Alan Davies, Carla Harryman, P. Inman, Lynne Dryer, Madeline Gins, Fanny Howe, Susan Howe, Jackson Mac Low, Tom Mandel, Bernadette Mayer, Steve McCaffery, Michael Palmer, Ted Pearson, Bob Perelman, Nick Piombino, Joan Retallack, Erica Hunt, James Sherry, Jean Day, Kit Robinson, Ted Greenwald, Leslie Scalapino, Diane Ward, Rosmarie Waldrop, and Hannah Weiner. This list accurately reflects the high proportion of female poets among the Language movement. [cite|author=Ann Vickery|title=Leaving Lines of Gender: A Feminist Genealogy of Language Writing|publisher=Wesleyan University Press|date=2000] African-American poets associated with the movement include Hunt, Nathaniel Mackey, and Harryette Mullen.
Language poetry in the early 21st century
In many ways, what Language poetry "is" is still being determined as of this writing, (spring 2006). Most of the poets whose work falls within the bounds of the Language school are still alive and still active contributors. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Language poetry was widely received as a significant movement in innovative poetry in the U.S., a trend accentuated by the fact that some of its leading proponents took up academic posts in the
Poetics, Creative Writingand English Literaturedepartments in prominent universities ( University of Pennsylvania, SUNY Buffalo, Wayne State University, University of California, Berkeley, University of California, San Diego, University of Maine, the Iowa Writers' Workshop).
Language poetry also developed affiliations with literary scenes outside the States, notably England, Canada (through the
Kootenay School of Writingin Vancouver), France, the USSR, Brazil, Finland, Sweden, New Zealand, and Australia. It had a particularly interesting relation to the UK " avant-garde": in the 1970s and 1980s there were extensive contacts between American language poets and veteran UK writers like Tom Raworthand Allen Fisher, or younger figures such as Caroline Bergvall, Maggie O'Sullivan, cris cheek, and Ken Edwards(whose magazine "Reality Studios" was instrumental in the transatlantic dialogue between American and UK "avant-garde"s). Other writers, such as J.H. Prynneand those associated with the so-called "Cambridge" poetry scene ( Rod Mengham, Douglas Oliver, Peter Riley) were perhaps more skeptical about language poetry and its associated polemicsand theoretical documents, though Geoff Wardwrote a book about the phenomena.
A second-generation of poets influenced by the Language poets includes
Eric Selland(also a noted translator of modern Japanese poetry), Lisa Robertson, and many others.
A significant number of women poets, and magazines and anthologies of innovative women's poetry, have been associated with language poetry on both sides of the Atlantic. They also represent an often distinct set of concerns. Among the poets are
Leslie Scalapino, Madeline Gins, Susan Howe, Lyn Hejinian, Carla Harryman, Rae Armantrout, Johanna Drucker, Abigail Child, Karen Mac Cormack; among the magazines HOW/ever, later the e-based journal HOW2; and among the anthologies , edited by Maggie O'Sullivan for Reality Street Editions in London (1996) and Mary Margaret Sloan's (Jersey City: Talisman Publishers, 1998).
Critique of Language Poetry
The recent publication of "The Grand Piano" [ [http://www.thegrandpiano.org/ The Grand Piano] a website devoted to an "experiment", or project, of "Collective Autobiography" begun by 10 of the so-called "West Coast" group of Language poets. The plan is for 10 volumes to appear. The first volume appeared in November 2006, and thereafter in 3 month intervals.] has caused a reassessment of the place of the important West Coast branch of "language writing", and affords an opportunity to reexamine the achievements and dilemmas of Language poetry.
"The Grand Piano" [ for additional details, commentary, and links see Barrett Watten's piece [http://www.english.wayne.edu/fac_pages/ewatten/posts/post34.html How "The Grand Piano" Is Being Written] and James Sherry's commentaries in Jacket [http://jacketmagazine.com/32/sherry-piano.shtml The Ten-Tone Scale] ] describes itself as "an experiment in collective autobiography". It was begun over email by ten poets identified with Language poetry, who sought to reconnect their writing practices and to "recall and contextualize events from the period of the late 1970s." When completed, "The Grand Piano", will comprise ten parts, in each of which the ten authors appear in a different sequence, often responding to prompts and problems arising in the series.
These ten poets, who began active engagement in writing and publishing in the 1970s, are often identified with the so-called "West Coast" branch of this "school", sometimes labeled "San Francisco Language Poets". "The Grand Piano" is an opportunity for some critics, artists, writers, and readers to critique or survey "Language poetry". When the lens is focused on this movement's legacy and ongoing influence, divisiveness and controversy are the watchwords. Battle lines are often drawn among viewpoints arguing for and against Language poetry's strengths and weaknesses, the sociology of its avant-garde position, the implications of its successful bid for academic hegemony, and the ensuing marginalization of other formations equally entitled to being regarded as worthy successors to
Some poets, such as Norman Finkelstein in a conversation with Mark Scroggins, have stressed their own ambiguous relationship, even after decades of fruitful engagement, to "Language poetry". Finkelstein, referencing specifically "The Grand Piano", points to a "risk" (if foregrounded) when previously marginalized poets attempt to write their own literary histories, "not the least of which is a self-regard bordering on narcissism". [ [http://kulturindustrie.blogspot.com/2007/04/toy-piano.html "The Toy Piano"] a piece from Mark Scroggins's blog "Culture Industry", with commentary by Norman Finkelstein]
List of poetry groups and movements
List of literary movements
*Allen, Donald, ed. "
The New American Poetry 1945-1960." New York: Grove Press, 1960.
*Andrews, Bruce, and Charles Bernstein, eds. "The "L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E" Book." Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984.
*Armantrout, Rae. "Collected Prose." San Diego: Singing Horse, 2007.
*Bernstein, Charles, ed. "The Politics of Poetic Form: Poetry and Public Policy." New York: Roof, 1990.
*Hoover, Paul, ed. "." New York: Norton, 1994.
*Messerli, Douglas, ed. "Language Poetries." New York: New Directions, 1987.
*Silliman, Ron, ed. "In the American Tree." Orono, Me.:
National Poetry Foundation, 1986; reprint ed. with a new afterword, 2002. An anthology of language poetry that serves as a very useful primer.
Books: Poetics and Criticism
*Andrews, Bruce. "Paradise and Method." Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1996.
*Bernstein, Charles. "Content's Dream: Essays 1975-1984." Los Angeles: Sun & Moon Press, 1985
*———. "A Poetics." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992
*———. "My Way; Speeches and Poems." University of Chicago Press, 1999
*Davies, Alan. "Signage." New York: Roof Books, 1987.
*Friedlander, Ben. "Simulcast: Four Experiments in Criticism." Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2004.
*Hartley, George. "Textual Politics and the Language Poets." Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.
*Hejinian, Lyn. "The Language of Inquiry." Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
*Howe, Susan. "My Emily Dickinson." Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1988. Rpt, New Directions, 2007.
*———. "The Birth-Mark: Unsettling the Wilderness in American Literary History." Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1993.
*Huk, Romana, ed. "Assembling Alternatives: Reading Postmodern Poetries Transnationally." Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2003.
*McCaffery, Steve. "North of Intention: Critical Writings 1973-1986." New York: Roof Books, 1986.
*———. "Prior to Meaning: The Protosemantic and Poetics." Evanston: Northwestern UP, 2001.
*Perelman, Bob. "The Marginalization of Poetry: Language Writing and Literary History." Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996.
*Piombino, Nick. "Boundary of Blur." New York: Roof Books, 1993
*Reinfeld, Linda. "Language Poetry: Writing as Rescue." Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 1992.
*Silliman, Ron. "The New Sentence." New York: Roof Books, 1987. An early collection of talks and essays that situates language poetry into contemporary political thought, linguistics, and literary tradition. See esp. section II.
*Scalapino, Leslie. "How Phenomena Appear to Unfold." Elmwood: Potes & Poets, 1989.
*———. "Objects in the Terrifying Tense / Longing from Taking Place." Roof Books, 1994.
*———. "The Public World / Syntactically Impermanence." Wesleyan University Press, 1999.
*Vickery, Ann. "Leaving Lines of Gender: A Feminist Genealogy of Language Writing." Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2000.
*Ward, Geoff. "Language Poetry and the American Avant-Garde." Keele: British Association for American Studies, 1993.
*Watten, Barrett. "The Constructivist Moment: From Material Text to Cultural Poetics." Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2003. See esp. chaps. 2 and 3.
*———. "Total Syntax." Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984.
Books: Cross-genre & Cultural writing
*Armantrout, Rae. "True." Berkeley, CA: Atelos | (Small Press Distribution), 1998. ISBN 978-1-891190-03-2
*Davies, Alan. Candor. Berkeley, CA, 1990.
*Perelman, Bob, et.al.. "The Grand Piano: An Experiment in Collective Autobiography." Detroit, MI: Mode A/This Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-9790198-0-X - this work is described as an ongoing experiment in collective autobiography by ten writers [The ten writers are Bob Perelman, Barrett Watten, Steve Benson, Carla Harryman, Tom Mandel, Ron Silliman, Kit Robinson, Lyn Hejinian, Rae Armantrout, and Ted Pearson. This book further describes itself as follows: "It takes its name from a coffeehouse at 1607 Haight Street, where from 1976-79 the authors took part in a reading and performance series. The writing project, begun in 1998, was undertaken as an online collaboration, first via an interactive web site and later through a listserv"] identified with Language poetry in San Francisco. The project will consist of 10 volumes in all.
*Piombino, Nick. Fait Accompli. Queens, NY: Factory School, 2006.
*Scalapino, Leslie. "Zither & Autobiography." Middletown, CT: Wesleyan, 2003.
*Silliman, Ron. "Under Albany." Cambridge, UK:
Salt Publishing, 2004. ISBN 978-1844710515
*Watten, Barrett. "Bad History." Berkeley, CA: Atelos | Small Press Distribution , 1998. ISBN 978-1-891190-02-5
*Suman Chakraborty. ' [http://www.worldlitonline.net/art3.pdf Meaning, Unmeaning and the Poetics of L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E] ' See: "Indian Review of World Literatute in English" (Online Journal) PDF Display
*Michael Greer, "Ideology and Theory in Recent Experimental Writing or, the Naming of "Language Poetry," boundary 2, Vol. 16, No. 2/3 (Winter - Spring, 1989), pp. 335-355
*Perloff, Marjorie. "The Word as Such: LANGUAGE: Poetry in the Eighties." American Poetry Review (May-June 1984), 13(3):15-22. [this article on line [http://www.writing.upenn.edu/library/Perloff-Marjorie_Word-as-Such.html link here] ]
*Barlett, Lee, "What is 'Language Poetry'?" "Critical Inquiry" 12 (1986): 741-752. Available through JStor.
Notes & references
* [http://www.english.wayne.edu/fac_pages/ewatten/posts/post27.html On First Looking into Wikipedia's "Language"] by Barrett Watten
*' [http://www.worldlitonline.net/art3.pdf Meaning, Unmeaning and the Poetics of L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E] ' -- an article by Suman Chakraborty
* [http://epc.buffalo.edu "Electronic Poetry Center"]
* [http://english.utah.edu/eclipse/projects/LANGUAGE/language.html "L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E Magazine" online archive]
* [http://english.utah.edu/eclipse/projects/TOOTHPICK/toothpick.html Bruce Andrews-edited issue of "Toothpick"]
* [http://jhenrychunko.blogspot.com/2007/04/dwelling-place-9-poets-alcheringa-1975.html "The Dwelling Place: 9 Poets" Ron Silliman-edited issue of "Alcheringa"]
* [http://english.utah.edu/eclipse/projects/THIS/this.html Index for full run of "This" magazine]
* [http://www.ubu.com/papers/andrews.html THE POETICS OF L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E by Bruce Andrews]
* [http://www.leevilehto.net/default.asp?a=1&b=8&c=13&d=10 In the Un-American Tree] ( "The L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E Poetries and Their Aftermath, with a Special Reference to Charles Bernstein Translated" ). This piece by Leevi Lehto was presented as one of the Keynote Addresses at the opening session of International Conference on 20th Century American Poetry, hosted by
Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China, July 21, 2007
* [http://ronsilliman.blogspot.com Silliman's Blog: A weblog focused on contemporary poetry and poetics]
* [http://epc.buffalo.edu/authors/bernstein Charles Bernstein author page and web log]
* [http://kswnet.org/npc.html New Poetics Colloquium proceedings (1985)]
* [http://samizdatblog.blogspot.com/2005_06_15_archive.html Bleed-Over and Decadence, or: No Bones About It, They're Talking About Language Poetry] by poet
Robert Archambeauwhich first appeared on his blog.
* [http://www.thegrandpiano.org/ The Grand Piano] website devoted to the 10 volumes of "Collective Autobiography" by 10 of the so-called "West Coast" group of Language poets.
* [http://writing.upenn.edu/library/Ward-Geoffrey_Language-Poetry.html Geoff Ward, Language Poetry and the American Avant-Garde (1993)]
* [http://writing.upenn.edu/library/Epstein-Andews_Verse-vs-Verse.pdf Andrew Epstein, "Verse vs. Verse: The Language Poets are taking over the academy. But will success spoil their integrity?" (Lingua Franca, Sept. 2000: 45-54]
* [http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/88/mcgann.html Jerome McGann, "Contemporary Poetry, Alternate Routes"] a piece by
* [http://jacketmagazine.com/02/lilley02.html "This L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E" by Kate Lilley] essay by
Kate Lilley@ "Jacket Magazine" site
* [http://home.jps.net/~nada/language1.htm Language Poetry: Dissident Practices and the Makings of a Movement] links to 7 articles by Eleana Kim & an extensive bibliography of articles & books relating to Language writing
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