- Hardline (subculture)
Hardline is a radical
deep ecologymovement that had its roots in the straight edgehardcore scene. From an initial founding statement (see ) the movement attempted a break with the straight edgeand hardcore scenes. The founding statement and subsequent literature pushed a bio-centric view of the world, pro-lifestance on abortion and much more extreme version of straight edge.
The hardline philosophy forbids its adherents from smoking or chewing any form of
tobacco, drinking alcoholic beverages, and using illicit drugs or modern medicines. Hardliners (as they were called) were expected to follow a strict dietary regimen based on the above-mentioned pillars of respect for innocent life and the natural order. Hardliners ate only foods that were vegan and relatively natural (e.g. brown rice over white, evaporated cane juice over white sugar, organic produce over conventional, natural oils over hydrogenated). Human rightsissues were also factored into the movement's food politics, and followers were urged to shun third-world cash cropssuch as coffee, chocolate, sugar, and most tropical fruits. Hardliners included caffeine in their stance on mind-altering drugs so the first two items were generally abstained from, but consumption of the last two (and especially the final) was often given more leeway.
In keeping with its Abrahamic view of the natural order, the sexual politics of the hardline movement were very conservative.
Sexwas not allowed except for the reason of procreation, homosexualitywas seen as anathema, pornographywas abjured, artificial contraceptionwas avoided, and abortionwas militantly opposed. Although the official hardline stance on sex was that its natural purpose was purely procreative, many hardliners justified recreational sex within the context of committed relationships as potentially procreative by opting not to use artificial contraceptives. Hardline was always highly syncretic (over time absorbing influences from Islamand a host of other schools of thought), and initially attempted to give its obviously Biblical/Islamic sexual morals added credibility by claiming a Taoistfoundation for them. This appeal to the orientation of the punk and hardcore scenes met with little success, and the topics of abortion and homosexuality were always sources of tension between hardliners and their subcultural cousins.
The hardline movement grew out of the hardcore and hardcore punk scenes in the 1990s. Although one of the basic tenets of hardline was that it had existed in various forms since the beginning of time, the ideology was largely formulated by
Sean Muttaqiof the band Vegan Reich. The hardline philosophy was said to be rooted in one ethic (the sacredness of innocent life), but in reality the ethos rested on that base and on an idea of an immutable natural order. Hardline can be described as a synthesis of deep ecology, straight edge, veganism, animal liberation, and Abrahamic religion.
The movement began to attract followers shortly after the 1990 release of Vegan Reich's "Hardline" EP and the official founding of the movement. Other bands soon formed; the most notable of them being Raid from Tennessee.
Although Sean Muttaqi was still editing the
zine"Vanguard" (hardline's official press organ) and therefore exerting massive ideological influence on the movement, the center of its activities quickly shifted to Tennessee. Many in the Memphis hardcore scene adopted Hardline stances and started editing zines, organizing protests, engaging in direct actionagainst industries that exploited animals, and otherwise acting on their new beliefs. Some of the most notable achievements of Memphis Hardline were organizing the movement's first annual Gathering and founding the long-standing and relatively mainstream Coalition to Abolish the Fur Trade(CAFT) As things began to fade in Memphis, and Muttaqi left for Jamaica to explore Rastafarianism and decided to leave the hardcore scene along with hardline altogether, the movement was gaining attention and momentum in central Indiana.
Not wanting the movement to die, but not wanting to be responsible for it either, Muttaqi transferred the editing of "Vanguard" over to a young resident of Indianapolis,
Ryan Downeywho put together a fair number of issues of the zine, sang for the bands Hardballand Warpath (not to be confused with the queercoreband of the same name), and attempted to further move Hardline into the realm of mainstream political activism. After a few years of eating, breathing, and sleeping hardline ("The General" once famously said that hardline "allows for recreation" when asked by a new recruit if it was acceptable for followers to watch " Star Trek"), Vanguard's editor decided to devote some time to himself and his spiritual betterment (he had recently been exposed to the Bahá'í Faiththrough his progressive contacts). After a few years, the "Vanguard" torch was passed to fellow Indianapolis Hardline member David Agranoff.
Under Agranoff's direction the movement made unprecedented inroads into activism outside of the punk and hardcore scenes. Hardliners were instrumental in CAFT, the Animal Defense League, and Vegans For Life. Some were also involved in
Earth First!, anti-imperialistorganizations, and other leftist causes and groups. Starting with Agranoff's Upstate Hardline chapter, some cells began making direct contact with the general public by hosting educational forums that were essentially lectures on current events centred on Hardline's perspective.
Running parallel to, but largely outside of, Agranoff's current was an attempt by some Hardliners from
Massachusettsto establish an intentional community in Hawaii. The effort quickly failed due to personality conflicts (especially the ongoing debate among group members as to whether or not cooked food was natural enough) and a distinct lack of required agricultural and engineering skills.
When Vegan Reich briefly reformed in 1996, Muttaqi credited the movement with the spread of vegan straightedge ideals in the 1990s. Partially true,
vegan straight edgecame from hardline. Hardline was undoubtedly heavily inspired from its inception by straightedge. The original logo of the movement was an outline of a large "X" (the sign most often associated with straightedge) with two crossed M16 rifles inside it. Muttaqi has said that he was first exposed to the idea of fusing veganism and abstinence from drugs by an English punk named Rat (of the bands Statement, Unborn, Talisman, and others). Rat had allegedly coined the term "vegan straight edge" by the mid-1980s. However, Rat was doing little to spread his ideology while Muttaqi was transforming and propagating it. Vegan Reich was for many in the hardcore scene their first exposure to ideas about militant animal liberation, and the controversy they aroused drew considerable attention to their positions. Those in the subculture who gravitated toward animal-related causes but disagreed with some of hardline's finer points found themselves becoming vegan straightedge. Vegan straightedge band Earth Crisisinitially wanted Muttaqi to release their debut EP "All Out War" on his record label.
As the movement came into its own, many hardliners decided that their philosophy was so beyond the narrow scene politics of straightedge that the two were entirely different things. The "X" was removed from the crossed rifles logo, straightedge was harshly criticized, and hardliners were encouraged to leave the hardcore scene. Much of this sprang from the momentum being gained by the more activist-oriented elements within the movement. Eventually hardliners came to consider their network wholly divorced from the hardcore scene. However, the nature of information dissemination in a mostly pre-Internet media environment made recruiting from outside the hardcore subculture next to impossible. Although hardline served to involve people heavily in political activity, the overwhelming bulk of new members were straightedgers who would with time come to identify primarily as activists instead of hardcore kids.
In mid-1998 the movement experienced a massive internal upheaval as Sean Muttaqi returned to Hardline and with a group of new followers issued the eighth edition of "Vanguard" without warning Agranoff or the rest of the extant membership. "Vanguard" number eight announced the reorganization of the movement under the authority of the newly created Hardline Central Committee (HCC) and castigated Agranoff and his comrades for softening the network's ideology through their refinement and development of it. Chapters were instructed to report to the Committee for evaluation and were told in no uncertain terms that they would not be recognized as cells until they submitted to this review. Also in the issue was a document about the stages through which the Hardline revolution would progress which was presented as being from 1990, but had never before been seen and was suspiciously contemporary feeling.
Many chapters (including Agranoff's) opted to leave hardline entirely and instead established a new activist network called Education For A Sustainable Future (ESF). ESF differed from its predecessor in that it took no stances on sexual politics, was not a membership organization, and was entirely based in activism instead of subcultural activity.
Those who remained with the HCC steered hardline in increasingly Islamic and
Islamistdirections for close to a year. After that, the Committee published "Vanguard" number nine which announced the formal dissolution of the movement. According to the zine, Hardliners would remain ideologically committed but would no longer act as an official organization and would instead function as an underground network of infiltrators into other revolutionary organizations, movements, and subcultures. This phase of the network's revolutionary plan was outlined in "Vanguard" eight.
It would appear that those hardliners left standing decided that radical Islam was the tendency ripest for infiltration and almost immediately after the publication of "Vanguard" nine founded
Ahl-i Allah(The People Of Allah). The infant group's website featured old "Vanguard" articles that had been slightly rewritten to fit the organization's interpretation of Islam and new writings of a decidedly more Muslim bent. The Ahl-i Allah eventually disbanded, with Muttaqi and Isa Adam Naziriforming Taliyah al-Mahdi(Vanguard of the Mahdi). In spite of both the Islamism of the new group and the criticism contained in "Vanguard" eight of the affinity with neo-paganismthe old movement developed during Agranoff's tenure, the Taliyah surprisingly continues the Hardline tradition of syncretism. The masthead of the group's website at one time featured Arabic writing, a yin-yang, I-Chingtrigrams, and two crossed pieces of mediaeval Chinese weaponry. The Taliyah has since disbanded, with former "propaganda minister" Isa Adam Naziristarting a decidedly less political and more Judaeo-Qabalistic-influenced movement called Hashlamah, which is the Hebrew equivalent of the word "Islam".
At its height, the hardline movement had approximately ten chapters, with one or two people involved in the US, Europe, South America, and Australia.
Hardline-affiliated bands and publications
Among the hardcore bands who adhered to the Hardline ideology aside from
Vegan Reichwere Raid (Tennessee, US), Recoil (Tennessee, US), Pure Blood (Tennessee, US), New Dawn (US), Uprising (New York, US), and Talisman (New York, US). Rat from Unborn (UK) had a one-man studio project called Statement which initially was aligned with Hardline; however, he discarded the label over a disagreement over the issue of homosexuality.
Bands with some Hardline members were Day of Suffering (North Carolina, US), Ecorage (Essen, Germany), Vegan Militia (Essen, Germany), Birthright (Indiana, US), Abnegation (Pennsylvania, US), Absence (Italy), Força Vegan (BRA), Contempt (New York, US), Beta Minus Mechanic (New York, US), Framework (New York, US), Captive Nation Rising (California, US), Gatekeeper (New York, US), Altopuck (California, US), Sunrise (Poland), Pressure (California, US), XsafeguardX (UK), Warpath (Indiana, US), Slavearc (UK), Unborn (UK), Withdrawn (UK), Blood Green (UK), Perversion of Idolatry (UK), Seconds X Out (UK), Hardball (Indiana, US), Pain Runs Deep (Poland), Healing (Poland), Unsilent (Poland)
Hip-hop acts affiliated with Hardline were
Naj-One(AKA Foekus, AKA Foeknawledge) (Utah, US) and Amir Sulamain(Washington, DC, US) and went on to become members of Taliyah.
Hardline-affiliated publications included the zines "Praxis", "Destroy Babylon", "Contention Builder", "Declaration", "Unveil The Lies", "Defense, Rescue, and Survival", "S.E.A.L." [Straight Edge Animal Liberation] , "Caring Edge", "Vanguard", "Eco War", "VoiceboX" and "A Call For Justice".
The hardliners' elitist, strict, ascetic, often violent and controlling stance has often put them at odds with hardcore's "think for yourself, do what you choose" attitude.
Ian MacKaye, in the second recording of "Out Of Step" by Minor Threat, stressed that straight edge"is not a set of rules". Hardliners have been harshly criticized for their stance on sexuality, i.e. their belief that homosexuality and bisexualty (and even masturbation, according to some hardline literature) are unnatural and therefore wrong, and their opposition to abortion.
* [http://www.uprisingrecords.com/ Uprising Records: Sean Muttaqi's post-Hardline record label]
* [http://www.xcatalystx.com/ Catalyst Records: released numerous bands with Hardline members]
* [http://www.angelfire.com/ok2/sxethic/hlmanifest.html The Hardline Manifesto, which came with Vegan Reich's 7-inch single]
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