2001 Sino-Russian Treaty of Friendship

2001 Sino-Russian Treaty of Friendship

The Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation Between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation (FCT) is a twenty-year strategic treaty which was signed by the leaders of the two international powers, Jiang Zemin and Vladimir Putin, on July 16, 2001.


The treaty outlines the broad strokes which are to serve as a basis for peaceful relations, economic cooperation, as well as diplomatic and geopolitical reliance. Controversially, Article 9 of the treaty can be seen as an implicit defense pact, and other articles (A7 and A16) point at increasing military cooperation, including the sharing of "military know-how" (A16), namely, Chinese access to Russian military technology.

The treaty also encompasses a mutual, cooperative approach to environmental technology regulations and energy conservation; and toward international finance and trade. The document affirms Russia's stand on Taiwan as "an inalienable part of China" (A5), and highlights the commitment to ensure the "national unity and territorial integrity" in the two countries (A4).

Possible benefits

Analysts have attributed the motives behind, and perceived mutual benefit of, the FCT to several factors. [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_30_17/ai_77356320]


* China aims to produce more advanced technology, as opposed to a continued reliance on "Made in China," light consumer goods. This process can be accelerated with Russian training and technology.

* China wishes to develop and modernize its armed forces, much of which remain outdated. This process can be accelerated with Russian military training and technology.

* China wants to obtain a stable, consistent and affordable level of fuel shipments, especially petroleum. This goal can be better met with purchases and delivery of Russian oil, including the construction of a Trans-Siberian oil pipeline. [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003-11/18/content_282626.htm] [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-09/08/content_476125.htm]

* China wishes to attain support for its stance on Taiwan.


* Russia strives to obtain sources of capital, which it is in need of following severe losses to international speculators during the process of Soviet dissolution. This effort can be significantly aided through the use of Chinese capital. Accordingly:

:* Russia wants to find sources of employment for its skilled workforce.

:* Russia wants to sell its military technology and expertise.

:* Russia wants to sell its large reserves of petroleum and natural gas.

Fear of US encirclement

Both the PRC and Russia fear an encroachment by the United States (especially following its strengthened geopolitical position following the September 11, 2001 attacks) involving areas which they view as belonging to their respective spheres of national influences and interests: for the PRC, this largely involves Taiwan serving as a US client state, while for Russia it involves having various former Soviet Republics as US client states. Many of these do not border either country, though Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan border the PRC, whereas Kazakhstan borders both.

Economic competition with the US, Japan and the EU

The United States, Japan and the European Union are three economic powers who possess a skilled workforce and access to capital. Russia and the PRC can more effectively compete against these powers in the world economy, with Russia given access to Chinese capital and China given access to Russian training and technology.

ee also

* Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China
* Foreign relations of Russia
* Sino-Russian relations

External links

* [http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjdt/2649/t15771.htm Text of the Treaty] — Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China
* [http://english.people.com.cn/english/200107/16/eng20010716_75105.html "China, Russia Sign Good-Neighborly Friendship, Cooperation Treaty"] — "People's Daily"
* [http://www.chinese-embassy.no/eng/dtxw/t110017.htm "China, Russia Sign Good-Neighborly Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation" (details)] — The Chinese Embassy in Norway
* [http://www.china.org.cn/english/2002/Jul/36991.htm "Anniversary of Sino-Russian Good-Neighborly Treaty Marked"] — China Internet Information Center
* [http://english.chinamil.com.cn/site2/special-reports/2005-08/16/content_274207.htm "China, Russia to promote military cooperation"] — "People's Daily"
* [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2006-01/01/content_508523.htm Chinese, Russian leaders exchange new year's greetings" (2006)] — Xinhua
* [http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200506/30/eng20050630_193359.html "Chinese president arrives in Moscow for state visit" (2005)] — "People's Daily"
* [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2005-06/30/content_3154066.htm "Hu: Sino-Russian ties enter a new phase"] — Xinhua
* [http://en.rian.ru/analysis/20060110/42926674.html "Russian-Chinese border most problematic ecologically"] — RIA Novosti
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20020812101418/http://www.idsa-india.org/AN-JAN0102-5.htm "Post-Cold War Sino-Russian Relations: An Indian Perspective"] — Institute for Defense Studies and Analyses
* [http://www.twq.com/01autumn/garnett.pdf "Challenges of the Sino-Russian Strategic Partnership" (PDF)] — Center for Strategic and International Studies
* [http://www.asiaquarterly.com/content/view/129/40/ "Power Politics in Central Asia"] — "Harvard Asia Quarterly"

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