- Gandhi (film)
Ben Kingsley Rohini Hattangadi Candice Bergen Martin Sheen Roshan Seth
30 November 1982
3 December 1982
8 December 1982
16 March 1983
Ravi Shankar George Fenton
"Gandhi" (1982) is a
biographical filmabout Mohandas ("Mahatma") Gandhi, who was a leader of the nonviolent resistancemovement against British colonial rule in Indiaduring the first half of the 20th century. The film was directed by Richard Attenboroughand stars Ben Kingsleyas Gandhi; both won Academy Awards for their work on the film. The film was also given the Academy Award for Best Picture.
The film opens with a statement from the filmmakers explaining their approach to the problem of filming Gandhi's complex life story:
The film begins with Gandhi's assassination and funeral on
January 30, 1948. After an evening prayer, an elderly Gandhi is helped out for his evening walk to meet a large number of greeters and admirers. One of these visitors shoots him point blank in the chest. Gandhi exclaims, "Oh, God!" ("Hé Ram!" historically), and then falls dead. The film then cuts to a huge procession at his massive funeral, which is attended by dignitaries from around the world.
The early life of Gandhi is neither seen nor mentioned. Instead, the story flashes back to a life-changing event: in 1893, Gandhi is thrown off a South African train for being an Indian and traveling in a first class compartment. Gandhi realizes that the laws are biased against Indians and decides to start a non-violent protest campaign for the rights of all Indians in South Africa. After numerous arrests and the unwanted attention of the world, the government finally relents by recognizing rights for Indians, though not for the native blacks of South Africa.
After this victory, Gandhi is invited back to India, where he is now considered something of a national hero. He is urged to take up the fight for India's independence from the
British Empire. Gandhi agrees, and mounts a non-violent non-cooperation campaign of unprecedented scale, coordinating millions of Indians nationwide. There are some setbacks, such as violence against the protesters and Gandhi's occasional imprisonment.
Nevertheless, the campaign generates great attention, and Britain faces intense public pressure. Too weak from
World War IIto continue enforcing its will in India, Britain finally grants India's independence. Indians celebrate this victory, but their troubles are far from over. Religious tensions between Hindusand Muslimserupt into nation-wide violence. Gandhi declares a hunger strike, saying he will not eat until the fighting stops.
The fighting does stop eventually, but the country is divided. It is decided that the northwest area of India, and eastern part of India (current day
Bangladesh), both places where Muslims are in the majority, will become a new country called Pakistan(West and East Pakistan respectively). It is hoped that by encouraging the Muslims to live in a separate country, violence will abate. Gandhi is opposed to the idea, and is even willing to allow Muhammad Ali Jinnahto become the first prime minister of India, but the Partition of Indiais carried out nevertheless.
Gandhi spends his last days trying to bring about peace between both nations. He thereby angers many dissidents on both sides, one of whom finally gets close enough to assassinate him in a scene at the end of the film that mirrors the opening.
Shooting began on
November 26, 1980and ended on May 10, 1981. Approximately 300,000 extras were used in the funeral scene, the most for any film according to Guinness World Records. [cite web
title=Arts and media/Movies/Film extras
work=Guinness World Records
During pre-production, there was much speculation as to who would play the role of Gandhi. The choice was
Ben Kingsleywho is partly of Indian heritage (his birth name is Krishna Bhanji). Casting director for the film was Dolly Thakore, an Indian theatre actress who later went on to be casting director in several British Indian films.
Ben Kingsleyas Mahatma Gandhi
Candice Bergenas Margaret Bourke-White
*Edward Fox as
Brigadier General Reginald Dyer
John Gielgudas Baron Irwin
Trevor Howardas Judge Broomfield
John Millsas Lord Chelmsford
Martin Sheenas Vince Walker
Ian Charlesonas Reverend Charles Freer Andrews
Athol Fugardas General Jan Smuts
Günther Maria Halmeras Dr. Herman Kallenbach
Saeed Jaffreyas Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Geraldine Jamesas Mirabehn(Madeleine Slade)
Alyque Padamseeas Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Amrish Purias Khan
Roshan Sethas Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
Rohini Hattangadias Kasturba Gandhi
Ian Bannenas Senior Officer Fields
Richard Griffithsas Collins
Nigel Hawthorneas Kinnoch
Michael Hordernas Sir George Hodge
Shreeram Lagooas Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Om Purias Nahari
Daniel Day-Lewisas Colin, a young man who harasses Gandhi and Andrews
"Gandhi" received eight
*Best Actor -
*Best Director -
*Best Art Direction -
Stuart Craig, Bob Laing, Michael Seirton
*Best Cinematography - Billy Williams,
*Best Costume Design -
Bhanu Athaiya, John Mollo
*Best Editing - John Bloom
*Best Original Screenplay -
John BrileyIt also received nominations for:
*Best Makeup - Tom Smith
*Best Original Score -
Ravi Shankar, George Fenton
*Best Sound -
Gerry Humphreys, Robin O'Donoghue, Jonathan Bates, Simon KayeThe film also won best picture awards from BAFTA and the National Board of Review as well as six Golden Globes including Best Foreign Film.
American Film Institute recognition
AFI's 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains
Mahatma Gandhi— Hero #21
AFI's 100 Years... 100 Cheers— #29
This film had been Richard Attenborough's dream project, although two previous attempts at filming had been attempted and failed. In 1952,
Gabriel Pascalsecured an agreement with the Prime Minister of India (Pandit Nehru) to produce a film of Gandhi's life. However, Pascal died in 1954 before preparations were completed.Fact|date=February 2007 Later David Leanand Sam Spiegelplanned to make a film about Gandhi after completing " The Bridge on the River Kwai" (1957), reportedly with Alec Guinnessas Gandhi. Ultimately, the project was abandoned in favour of "Lawrence of Arabia" (1962).Fact|date=February 2007
Historian Lawrence James has written of the film:
"The film ... is pure hagiography, the late-twentieth-century equivalent of a mediaeval encomium of a remarkable saint rendered in words and illuminated pictures." [cite book |last= James |first=Lawrence |title= Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India |origyear=1997 |publisher=Little, Brown, and Company |isbn=031219322x |pages=465 ]
* [http://www.articlemyriad.com/108.htm Summary, analysis, and review of "Gandhi"]
* [http://www.americanrhetoric.com/moviespeeches.htm 4 Speeches from Movie in Text, Audio, Video] from AmericanRhetoric.com
* [http://www.movie-list.com/trailers.php?id=gandhi Trailer of the movie]
* [http://sfy.ru/sfy.html?script=gandhi Movie script]
* [http://www.bafta.org/library/gallery-gandhi-25-years-on,13,GAL.html Gallery of photos from the set of "Gandhi"] on the
Chariots of Fire
Terms of Endearment
Academy Award for Best Picture
title=Golden Globe for Best Foreign Film
Chariots of Fire"
Fanny and Alexander"succession box
Chariots of Fire"
BAFTA Award for Best Film
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