name = "Phragmipedium"

image_width = 220px
image_caption = "Phragmipedium caudatum"
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Liliopsida
ordo = Asparagales
familia = Orchidaceae
subfamilia = Cypripedioideae
tribus = Phragmipedieae
subtribus = Phragmipediinae
genus = "Phragmipedium"
genus_authority = Rolfe, 1896
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = See text.

"Phragmipedium" is a genus of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae) (Subfamily Cypripedioideae) and the only genus comprised in the tribe Phragmipedieae and subtribe Phragmipediinae. The name of the genus is derived from the Greek "phragma", which means "division", and "pedium", which means "slipper" (referring to the pouch). It is abbreviated Phrag in trade journals.

About 20 species of these lady's slipper orchids are known from SW Mexico, Central and tropical South America. The exact number of species is still being discussed among specialists : O. Gruss recognizes 20 species, compared to the 15 species accepted by Lucile M. McCook (see References).

Most "Phragmipedium" species are either terrestrial, epiphytic or lithophytic in habit. They show a unique shieldlike staminode, long, moustache-like petals and a 3-locular ovary. The large pouchlike lip is curved inwards at the margins. The acute leaves attain a length of about 80cm. The stem lacks pseudobulbs and grows about 80 cm high, showing 2 to 3 flowers.

"Phragmipedium besseae" was first found in Peru by Elizabeth Locke Besse in 1981. Soon afterwards, the site was plundered and destroyed by orchid hunters. Luckily enough seed was preserved, to avert extinction. This orchid is unusual, because its flowers have a bright orange-red to almost strong salmon-red color (there is also a yellow variety), unseen in any lady's slipper orchid. The oval-shaped petals are wide. The narrow leaves are elliptic in shape. It has since been used extensively in hybridization.

"Phragmipedium caudatum" is considered a complex, i.e. it could contain several species or subspecies, based on differences in flower size and color. This orchid with a short stem is semi-terrestrial, semi-lithophytic to epiphytic, depending on the substrate . The cream-colored flowers are laced with greenish stripes. The lateral spiraling, drooping petals are red-tinted and very long, even reaching the soil. They grow on wet, moss-covered hillsides.

"Phragmipedium lindleyanum", named after John Lindley, forms a rosette of five long linear leaves with a yellow margin, reaching a length of 50 cm. The erect raceme can grow as high as 1 m. It is many-flowered and sometimes branched at the basis. The flowers open in succession, giving the orchid a long blooming period. The hoary flowers are green with brown veins. The glabrous, pouchlike lip is yellow, with red veins.

"Phragmipedium longifolium", described in 1852 by H.G. Reichenbach f. and J. v. Warscewicz, has long laceolate leaves without yellow margin, growing to a length of 60 cm. The inflorescence reaches a length of 1 m, with about 10 flowers, opening in succession. The long lateral petals are purplish green. The rather small glabrous labellum has a green color.

Allied genera include "Paphiopedilum", "Selenipedium", "Cypripedium" and the monotypic "Mexipedium".

There are many interspecific hybrids. Rare crossings have been made between "Phragmipedium" and "Paphiopedilum".

All members of the genus "Phragmipedium" are listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).


The genus "Uropedium" Lindl. is generally included into "Phragmipedium".


The genus "Phragmipedium " is divided in several sections :
* Phragmipedium : "P. caudatum, P. exstaminodium, P. lindenii"
* Himantopetalum : "P. caricinum, P. christiansenianum, P. pearcei, P. klotzscheanum, P. richteri, P. tetzlaffianum".
* Platypetalum : "P. lindleyanum"
* Lorifolia : "P. boissierianum, P. hirtzii, P. longifolium, P. vittatum"
* Micropetalum : "P. besseae, P. besseae var. dalessandroi, P. fischeri, P. kovachii, P. schlimii."
*Schluckebieria : "P. kovachii"


*"Phragmipedium andreettae" P. J. Cribb & Pupulin (Ecuador)
*"Phragmipedium besseae" Dodson & J.Kuhn (Ecuador to N. Peru).
**"Phragmipedium besseae" var. "besseae" (E. Ecuador to N. Peru). Hemicr.
**"Phragmipedium bessae" var. "flavum" (Braem) Gruss et Roeth 1999 (Peru) (now synonym of "Phragmipedium besseae" var. "besseae")
**"Phragmipedium besseae" var. "dalessandroi" (Dodson & O.Gruss) A.Moon & P.J.Cribb (S. Ecuador). Hemicr.
*"Phragmipedium boissierianum" (Rchb.f.) Rolfe (S. Ecuador to Peru).
**"Phragmipedium boissierianum" var. "boissierianum" (Peru). Hemicr.
**"Phragmipedium boissierianum" var. "czerwiakowianum" (Rchb.f.) O.Gruss (S. Ecuador to Peru)
*"Phragmipedium brasiliense" Quené & O.Gruss (Brazil)
*"Phragmipedium caricinum" (Lindl. & Paxton) Rolfe (Bolivia).
*"Phragmipedium caudatum" (Lindl.) Rolfe : Mandarin Orchid (Bolivia to Peru). (synonym : "P. humboldtii" subsp. "humboldtii")
*"Phragmipedium chapadense" Campacci & R.Takase (Brazil).
*"Phragmipedium christiansenianum" O.Gruss & Roeth (Colombia) (now synonym of "Phragmipedium longifolium" (Warsz. & Rchb.f.) Rolfe)
*"Phragmipedium exstaminodium" Castaño, Hágsater & E.Aguirre (Mexico - Chiapas to Guatemala).
*"Phragmipedium fischeri" Braem & H.Mohr (Ecuador).
*"Phragmipedium hirtzii" Dodson (N. Ecuador).
*"Phragmipedium humboldtii" (Warsz. ex Rchb.f.) J.T.Atwood & Dressler (Costa Rica to Panama) (now synonym of : "Phragmipedium popowii" Braem, Ohlund & Quéné)
*"Phragmipedium klotzschianum" (Rchb.f.) Rolfe (SE. Venezuela to Guyana and N. Brazil).
*"Phragmipedium kovachii" J.T.Atwood, Dalström & Ric.Fernández (Peru – San Martin).
*"Phragmipedium lindenii" (Lindl.) Dressler & N.H.Williams (Venezuela to Ecuador).
*"Phragmipedium lindleyanum" (M.R.Schomb. ex Lindl.) Rolfe (N. South America to Brazil - Pernambuco).
*"Phragmipedium longifolium" (Warsz. & Rchb.f.) Rolfe (Costa Rica to Ecuador).
*"Phragmipedium pearcei" (Rchb.f.) Rauh & Senghas (Ecuador to N. Peru).
*"Phragmipedium popowii" Braem, Ohlund & Quéné (Costa Rica to Panama)
*"Phragmipedium reticulatum" (Rchb.f.) Schltr. (Ecuador to Peru).
*"Phragmipedium richteri" Roeth & O.Gruss (Peru).
*"Phragmipedium × roethianum" O.Gruss & Kalina (Ecuador) ("P. hirtzii" x "P. longifolium")
*"Phragmipedium schlimii" (Linden ex Rchb.f.) (Colombia).
*"Phragmipedium tetzlaffianum" O.Gruss (Venezuela).
*"Phragmipedium vittatum" (Vell.) Rolfe (WC. & SE. Brazil).
*"Phragmipedium wallisii" (Rchb.f.) Garay (now synonym of : "Phragmipedium warszewiczianum" (Rchb.f.) Schltr.)
*"Phragmipedium warszewiczianum" (Rchb.f.) Schltr. (Colombia to Ecuador)


*Albert, V.Z. & B.Pettersson, "Expansion of Genus Paphiopedilum Pfitzer to Include All Conduplicate-leaved Slipper Orchids" (Cypripedioideae: Orchidaceae). Lindleyana 9(2) 133-139 (1994).
*McCook, L. "An Annotated Checklist of the Genus Phragmipedium" - 28 p. - Special Publication of the Orchid Digest (1998).
*Gruss, O. 2003. "A checklist of the genus Phragmipedium". Orchid Digest 67: 213-241.
*Braem, G. J., Ohlund, S., and Quene, R. J. 2004. "The real Phragmipedium warszewiczianum: a clarification of the Phragmipedium caudatum complex" (Phragmipedium section Phragmipedium). Orquideologia 23(2): 87-136
*Pridgeon, A.M.; Cribb, P.J.; Chase, M.W. & F. N. Rasmussen (1999): Genera Orchidacearum Vol.1, Oxford U. Press. ISBN 0-19-850513-2

External links

* [ Phragmipedium CultureSheet]

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