An encyclical was originally a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. At that time, the word could be used for a letter sent out by any bishop. The word comes from Latin "encyclia" (from the Greek "en kyklo, Polytonic|ἐν κύκλῳ") meaning "general" or "encircling", which is also the origin of the word "encyclopedia".

The Roman Catholic Church generally only uses this term for Papal encyclicals, but the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Anglican Communion retain the older usage.

Roman Catholic usage

For the modern Roman Catholic Church a Papal encyclical, in the strictest sense, is a letter, usually treating some aspect of Catholic doctrine, sent by the Pope and addressed either to the Catholic bishops of a particular area or, more normally, to the bishops of the world; however, the form of the address can vary widely, and often designates a wider audience. Papal encyclicals usually take the form of a Papal brief due to their more personal nature as opposed to the formal Papal bull. Papal encyclicals are so famous that the term "encyclical" is used almost exclusively for those sent out by the Pope. The title of the encyclical is usually taken from its first few words.

Within Catholicism in recent times, an encyclical is generally used for significant issues, and is second in importance only to the highest ranking document now issued by popes, an Apostolic Constitution. However, the designation 'encyclical' does not always denote such a degree of significance. The archives at the Vatican website currently classify certain encyclicals as "Apostolic Exhortations". This informal term generally indicates documents with a broader audience than the bishops alone.

Pope Pius XII held that Papal Encyclicals, even when they are not "ex cathedra", can nonetheless be sufficiently authoritative to end theological debate on a particular question: cquote| It is not to be thought that what is set down in Encyclical letters does not demand assent in itself, because in this the popes do not exercise the supreme power of their magisterium. For these matters are taught by the ordinary magisterium, regarding which the following is pertinent: “He who heareth you, heareth Me.” (Luke 10:16); and usually what is set forth and inculcated in Encyclical Letters, already pertains to Catholic doctrine. But if the Supreme Pontiffs in their acts, after due consideration, express an opinion on a hitherto controversial matter, it is clear to all that this matter, according to the mind and will of the same Pontiffs, cannot any longer be considered a question of free discussion among theologians.
:—"Humani Generis"

Papal use of encyclicals

Encyclicals indicate high Papal priority for a issue at a given time. Pontiffs define when, and under which circumstances encyclicals should be issued. They may choose to issue an apostolic constitution, bull, encyclical, apostolic letter or give a papal speech. Popes have differed on the use of encyclicals: on the issue of birth control and contraception, Pope Pius XI issued the encyclical Casti Connubii, while Pope Pius XII gave a speech to midwives and the medical profession, clarifying his position on the issue. [Acta Apostolicae Sedis, (AAS) 1951, 835, AAS 1958, 90, AAS 1941, 40, AAS 1952, 258] Pope Paul VI published an encyclical Humanae Vitae on the same topic. On matters of war and peace, Pope Pius XII issued ten encyclicals, mostly after 1945, three of them protesting the Soviet invasion of Hungary in order to crackdown on the Hungarian Revolution in 1956: Datis Nuperrime, Sertum Laetitiae, Luctuosissimi Eventus. Pope Paul VI spoke about the war in Vietnam and Pope John Paul II, issued a protest against the war in Iraq using the medium of speeches. On social issues, Pope Leo XIII promulgated Rerum Novarum (1891), which was followed by the Quadragesimo Anno (1931) of Pius XI, and the Centesimus Annus (1991) of John Paul II. Pius XII spoke on the same topic to a consistory of cardinals, in his Christmas messages and to numerous academic and professional associations. [ Allocution to the Cardinals AAS 1946, 141, and, AAS 1952, 5, AAS 1955, 15; and, for example in his Christmas Message 1954, AAS, medical doctors on the use of modern weopons, AAS 1954, 587, farmers, AAS 1950, 251, fashion AAS 1957, 1011, human dignity, AAS 1951, 215, AAS 1957, 830]

Anglican usage

Amongst Anglicans the term "encyclical" was revived in the late 19th century. It is applied to circular letters issued by the English primates.

Important papal encyclicals

*Pope Eugene IV (1431-1447)
**"Sicut Dudum" 1435*Pope Saint Pius V 7 January 1566 to 1 May 1572
**"Quo Primum" 19 July 1570*Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758)
**"Vix Pervenit" 1745
**"Ex Quo" 1756*Pope Blessed Pius IX (1846-1878)
**"Quanta Cura" 1864*Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903)
**"Humanum Genus" 1884
**"Rerum Novarum" 1891
**"Providentissimus Deus" 1893* Pope Saint Pius X (1903-1914)
**"Vehementer Nos" 1905
**"Pascendi Dominici Gregis" 1910*Pope Benedict XV (1914-1922)
**"Humani Generis Redemptionem" 1917
**"Pacem, Dei Munus Pulcherrimum" 1920*Pope Pius XI (1922-1939)
**"Quas Primas " 1925
**"Iniquis Afflictisque" 1926
**"Casti Connubii" 1930
**"Quadragesimo Anno" 1931
**"Acerba animi" 1932
**"Dilectissima Nobis" 1933
**"Divini Redemptoris" 1937
**"Mit Brennender Sorge 1937*Pope Pius XII (1939-1958)
**"Summi Pontificatus"1939
**"Sertum Laetitiae" 1939
**"Mystici Corporis Christi" 1943
**"Divino Afflante Spiritu" 1943
**"Orientales Omnes"1945
** "Deiparae Virginis Mariae"1946
**"Mediator Dei" 1947
**"Provida Mater Ecclesia" 1947
**"Auspicia Quaedam" 1948
**"In Multiplicibus" 1948
**"Redemptoris Nostri" 1949
**"Humani Generis" 1950
**"Anni Sacri" 1950
**"Fulgens Corona" 1950
**"Munificentissimus Deus" 1950, Ap. Const., Dogma of the Assumption
**"Sempiternus Rex" 1951
** "Evangelii Praecones" 1951
**"Orientales Ecclesia"1952
** "Ad Caeli Reginam" 1954
** "Ad Sinarum Gentes" 1954
**"Sacra Virginitas" 1954
** "Haurietis Aquas" 1956
**"Miranda Prorsus" 1957
** "Invicti Athletae" 1957
** "Ad Apostolorum Principis" 1958 *Pope Blessed John XXIII (1958-1963)
** "Ad Petri Cathedram" 1959
** "Sacerdotii Nostri Primordia" 1959
** "Grata Recordatio" 1959
** "Princeps Pastorum" 1959
** "Mater et Magistra" 1961
** "Aeterna Dei Sapientia" 1961
** "Poenitentiam Agere" 1962
** "Pacem in Terris" 1963 *Pope Paul VI (1963-1978)
** "Ecclesiam Suam" 1964
** "Mense Maio" 1965
** "Mysterium Fidei" 1965
** "Christi Matri" 1966
** "Populorum Progressio" 1967
** "Sacerdotalis Caelibatus" 1967
** "Humanae Vitae" 1968*Pope John Paul II (1978-2005)
** "Redemptor Hominis" 1979
** "Dives in Misericordia" 1980
** "Laborem Exercens" 1981
** "Slavorum Apostoli" 1985
** "Dominum et Vivificantem" 1986
** "Redemptoris Mater" 1987
** "Sollicitudo Rei Socialis" 1987
** "Redemptoris Missio" 1990
** "Centesimus Annus" 1991
** "Veritatis Splendor" 1993
** "Evangelium Vitae" 1995
** "Ut Unum Sint" 1995
** "Fides et Ratio" 1998
** "Ecclesia de Eucharistia" 2003*Pope Benedict XVI (2005 to present)
** "Deus Caritas Est" 2005
** "Spe Salvi" 2007
** ("Caritas in Veritate" coming Summer 2008")

Important Eastern Orthodox encyclicals

*Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs (1848)

Important Anglican encyclicals

*Encyclical Saepius Officio (1897)

External links

External links

* List of papal documents at the Theology Library [http://www.shc.edu/theolibrary/docs.htm]
* [http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/leo_xiii/encyclicals/index.htm Leo XIII Encyclicals from Vatican]
* [http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/pius_x/encyclicals/index.htm St.Pius X Encyclicals from Vatican]
* [http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xv/encyclicals/index.htm BenedictXV Encyclicals from Vatican]
* [http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/pius_xii/encyclicals/index.htm Pius XI Encyclicals from Vatican]
* [http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/pius_xii/encyclicals/index.htm Pius XII Encyclicals from Vatican]
* [http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_xxiii/encyclicals/index.htm John XXIII Encyclicals from Vatican]
* [http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/paul_vi/encyclicals/index.htm Paul VI Encyclicals from Vatican]
* [http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/index.htm John Paul II Encyclicals from Vatican]
* [http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/encyclicals/index_en.htm Benedict XVI Encyclicals from Vatican]
* [http://www.gcatholic.com/documents/data/type-PEN.htm Papal Encyclicals] at [http://www.gcatholic.com Giga-Catholic Information]
* [http://www.papalencyclicals.net www.papalencyclicals.net] , a source for etexts of most of the encyclicals from recent centuries
* [http://www.tcrnews2.com/Encyclical.html The Authority of Papal Encyclicals]


* "Acta Apostolicae Sedis, (AAS)," Roma Vaticano, 1920-2007

* "The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church" (3rd. ed.), p. 545.


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