- Alfonso und Estrella
"Alfonso und Estrella" ("Alfonso and Estrella") is an
operawith music by Franz Schubert, set to a German libretto by Franz von Schober, written in 1822. Along with the later "Fierrabras", composed in 1823, it marks Schubert's attempt to compose grand Romantic opera in German, departing from the Singspieltradition.
In close collaboration with von Schober in the region of
St. Pölten, Schubert wrote the music for "Alfonse und Estrella" between September 1821 and February 1822.cite journal |last=McKay |first=Elizabeth Norman |year=1966-1967 |month= |title=Schubert's Music for the Theatre |journal=Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association |volume=93rd Session |issue= |pages=pp. 51-66 |id= |url= |accessdate= |quote= ] cite journal |last=Nieder |first=Christopher (translated by Mary Whittall) |year=1993 |month=February |title=Review of "Franz Schubert, "Alfonso und Estrella", eine frühe durchkomponierte Oper: Geschichte und Analyse" by Till Gerrit Waidelich |journal=Music & Letters |volume=74 |issue=1 |pages=pp. 94-96 |id= |url= |accessdate= |quote= ] Schober, only one year older than the young Schubert, and a dabbler in literature, music and theatre, was enthusiastic about the collaboration. Schubert and Schober shared an appreciation for the operatic theories of Ignaz von Mosel, a patron of Schubert's, who supported Gluck’s operatic ideals. This influence may have led to the omission of all spoken dialog, parting from the German Singspiel form followed in operas such as Mozart's " Die Zauberflöte", Beethoven's " Fidelio", and Carl Maria von Weber's " Der Freischütz".cite web |url=http://www.grovemusic.com |title=Alfonso und Estrella |accessdate=2007-10-30 |last=McKay |first=Elizabeth Norman |date= |work=Grove Music Online |publisher= Oxford University Press]
Schubert never heard the opera performed in his lifetime. Opera houses in
Vienna, Berlin, Dresdenand Grazall had refused to stage it.cite journal |last=Boas |first=Robert |year=1992 |month=January |title=The Review Section: Live Performance - Schubert's Inhibition |journal=The Musical Times |volume=133 |issue=1787 |pages=pp. 33-41 |id= |url= |accessdate= |quote= ] The opera received its performance in Weimaron 24 June 1854, conducted by Franz Liszt. [cite book|last=Walker|first=Alan|authorlink=Alan Walker (musicologist)|title=Franz Liszt. v. 2. The Weimar years, 1848-1861|pages=289|year=1987, revised 1993 (paperback)|publisher= Cornell University Press|location= Ithaca, New York|isbn=0-8014-9721-3] Liszt had published an essay on the opera in advance of the first Weimar performance, and also had made cuts to the score for the production. Subsequent productions in the 1880's were in Karlsruhe, Viennaand Berlin. [cite journal |last=Keiler |first=Alan |year=1986 |month= |title=Liszt and the Weimar Hoftheater |journal=Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae |volume=T. 28, Fasc. 1/4 |issue= |pages=pp. 431-450 |id= |url= |accessdate= |quote= ] The first UK stage premiere was at Reading University Opera on 22 February 1977.cite journal |last=Dean |first=Winton |year=1977 |month=April |title=The University Opera Season - Reading: "Alfonso und Estrella" |journal=The Musical Times |volume=118 |issue=1610 |pages=pp. 323-325 |id= |url= |accessdate= |quote= ] cite journal |last=Charlton |first=David |year=1978 |month=November |title=Revival or Survival? |journal=19th-Century Music |volume=2 |issue=2 |pages=pp. 159-164 |id= |url= |accessdate= |quote= ] The opera did not receive a complete, uncut performance until 1991 in Graz.
Context and Analysis
A repeated criticism of the opera is its lack of dramatic action and pacing. Critics have suggested it is precisely because Schubert had minimal opportunity to see his late dramatic works performed during his lifetime that he lacked the perspective, and that which might have been revealed by it, available to other composers such as Beethoven who revised "Fidelio" on multiple occasions after public performance, to judge his operas from a distance.cite news |first=Bernard |last=Holland |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=The Forgotten Schubert Is Getting Another Chance |url= |work=New York Times |publisher= |date=December 31, 1989] Elizabeth Norman McKay has noted how Schubert incorporated his understanding of the music of
Gioachino Rossiniinto the opera. Till Gerrit Waidelich has published a monograph on the opera, detailing its history in composition and performance.cite journal |last=Branscombe |first=Peter |year=1995 |month=March |title=Book Reviews: Nineteenth Century |journal=Notes (2nd Ser.) |volume=51 |issue=3 |pages=pp. 930-933 |id= |url= |accessdate= |quote= ] Although it is believed Schubert intended to compose a grand Romantic opera, employing a large chorus and orchestra, at many points in the work he retained the simpler style of his earlier Singspiels. At other times, however, strong vocal lines, rich orchestration, and jarring harmonic progressions predominate. McKay has noted that, " [i] n such sections Schubert shows not only his genius for setting words to music and his sensitivity to orchestral colors but also his ability to manage the large resources of big operatic ensembles." As one critic has elegantly stated, "Schubert's great operatic asset -- aside from his incredible gift for melody -- was the ability to take cues from a word, a thought or a verbal description and translate them into musical accompaniment."
Alfonso is the son of the deposed King Froila, of Leon. Froila is concerned that Alfonso is anxious to lead a revolt against Mauregato, the usurper of Froila's throne. At the court of Leon, Adolfo, an ambitious general, is in love with Estrella, the daughter of Mauregato. However, Mauregato has said that only the man who has the "Chain of Eurich" may marry Estrella. Angry at being denied Mauregato in marriage, Adolfo plans a coup against Mauregato.
During a hunting expedition, Estrella is separated from her party. She and Alfonso meet and fall in love, unaware of the identity of the other. Alfonso gives Estrella a necklace that he has always carried, and directs her on a safe path home. Back at court, she tells her story, and Mauregato recognizes the necklace as the "Chain of Eurich". Before he can tell her of its meaning, the rebellion led by Adolfo has begun, and Adolfo captures Estrella. Alfonso learns that Estrella is Mauregato's daughter, and then sides with Mauregato against the rebels. Mauregato's forces defeat Adolfo, and Alfonso rescues Estrella. However, Mauregato has a crisis of conscience, and he restores Froila to his throne. In turn, Froila gives up his power to Alfonso and Estrella.
*cite book|last=Warrack|first=John|coauthors=West, Evan|year=1992|title=The Oxford Dictionary of Opera|publisher=
Oxford University Press|pages=782 pages|isbn= 0-19-869164-5
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