- Sino-Korean vocabulary
Infobox Korean name
hangul=한자말 / 한자어
hanja=漢字말 / 漢字語
rr=Hanjamal / Hanja-eo
mr=Hanchamal / Hanchaŏ
nrc=Hanjamar / Hanja-e| Sino-Korean or "hanja-eo" refers to the set of words in the
Korean languagevocabulary that originated from or were influenced by the Chinese language. The Sino-Korean lexicon consists of both words coined in the Korean language using Chinese characters and words that were borrowed directly from the Chinese language.
Sino-Korean words are one of the three main types of vocabulary in Korean. The other two are native Korean words and foreign words imported from other languages, mostly from EnglishSohn, Ho-Min. " [http://books.google.com/books?id=Sx6gdJIOcoQC&pg=RA1-PA12&lpg=RA1-PA12&source=web&ots=qlRSnc3WjG&sig=MlizCGZ6Yl15BHG2fBFrlRoh95I#PRA1-PA12,M1 The Korean Language (Section 1.5.3 "Korean vocabulary", p.12-13)] ", Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN 0521369436] .
Although Sino-Korean words today make up about 60% of the Korean vocabulary, many Sino-Korean words have been replaced in
North Koreawith native Korean words. However, there are still a large number of such words in widespread usage in the North.
Much like Japanese, a great deal of Sino-Korean
vocabularywas directly borrowed from Chinese. However, a small number of Sino-Korean words were coined by the Koreans themselves. Furthermore, many academic and scientific terms were borrowed from Japanese, which had created a large body of Sino-Japanese terms by coining or reusing Chinese words to translate Western terminology (mainly English and German). Under the Japanese annexation, this vocabulary was borrowed into Korean by systematically reading the characters with Korean pronunciations. Although most "hanja-eo" have the same meanings as their Chinese cognates, there are cases where the Korean meaning is different from the Chinese. This is due to various causes, including divergence of Korean meanings from Chinese, Korean coinage of new words, or borrowing from Japanese. The table below contains some words that are different between Chinese and Korean, although speakers of either language might be able to guess at the meanings from the written form (bracketed words are Simplified Chinesecharacters, while those beside are the Traditional Chineseequivalent):
Some Sino-Korean words derive from Japanese "
kun'yomi" words, that is, native Japanese words written in Chinese characters. When borrowed into Korean, the characters are given Sino-Korean pronunciations. (Note that in Japanese, these words are not considered to belong to the Sino-Japanese part of the vocabulary as they are native Japanese words.)
List of Korea-related topics
Thousand Character Classic
Korean mixed script
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