Wadō-ryū

Wadō-ryū

Infobox martial art group
logo =
logocaption =
logosize =



imagecaption = The flag of Wadō-ryū.
imagesize =
name = Wadō-ryū
(和道流)
aka =
date founded = 1938
country = flagicon|Japan Japan
founder = Hironori Ōtsuka
(1892–1982)
head = Three independently-led organizations: Wadōkai • Wadō Kokusai • Wadō-ryū Karatedo Renmei
arts = Karate
ancestor_arts = Jujutsu
descendant_arts =
ancestor schools = Shindō Yōshin-ryūShōtōkan-ryū
descendant schools=hybrid = striking/grappling
notable pract =
website =

Nihongo|Wado-ryu|和道流|Wadō-ryū is a school of karate founded by Hironori Ōtsuka. Originally a unified school, three organizations now teach the Wadō-ryū style: the Japan Karatedo Federation Wadōkai (abbreviated to Wadōkai; "Zen Nihon Karatedo Renmei Wadokai" in Japan), the Wadōryū Karatedō Renmei, and the Wadō Kokusai Karatedō Renmei (abbreviated to Wadō Kokusai; also known as the Wadō International Karatedō Federation [WIKF] ).

Characteristics

Philosophy

The name "Wadō-ryū" has three parts: "Wa", "dō", and "ryū". "Wa" means "harmony," "dō" means "way," and "ryū" means "style." Harmony should not be interpreted as pacifism; it is simply the acknowledgment that yielding is sometimes more effective than brute strength. [ [http://www.usko-karate.co.uk/Wado.htm USKO] ]

From one point of view, Wadō-ryū might be considered a style of jujutsu rather than karate. When Hironori Ōtsuka first registered his school with the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai in 1938, the style was called "Shinshu Wadoryu Karate-Jujutsu," a name that reflects its hybrid character. Ōtsuka was a licensed Shindō Yōshin-ryū practitioner and a student of Yōshin-ryū when he first met the Okinawan karate master Gichin Funakoshi. After having learned from Funakoshi, and later also Okinawan masters such as Kenwa Mabuni, Ōtsuka merged Shindō Yōshin-ryū with Okinawan karate. The result of Ōtsuka's efforts is Wadō-ryū. [ [http://www.usko-karate.co.uk/Wado.htm USKO] ]

To the untrained observer, Wadō-ryū might look similar to other styles of karate, such as Shōtōkan. Most of the underlying principles, however, were derived from Shindō Yōshin-ryū. A block in Wado may look much like a block in Shotokan, but they are executed from different perspectives.

A key principle in Wadō-ryū is that of "tai sabaki" (often incorrectly referred to as 'evasion'). The Japanese term can be translated as "body-management," and refers to body manipulation so as to move the defender as well as the attacker out of harm's way. The way to achieve this is to 'move along' rather than to 'move against'—or harmony rather than physical strength. Modern karate competition tends to transform Wadō-ryū away from its roots towards a new generic karate that appeals more to the demands of both spectators and competitors. [ [http://www.usko-karate.co.uk/Wado.htm USKO] ]

Ranks

Wadō-ryū uses a typical karate belt order to denote rank. The beginner commences and 9th or 10th "kyū" (depending on the organization and school) and progresses to 1st "kyū", then from 1st–5th "dan" for technical grades. The ranks of 6th–10th "dan" are honorary ranks. Although some other karate styles add stripes for the "dan" ranks, Wado Ryu practitioners tend not to follow that practice.

RankBelt Alternate 1Belt Alternate 2Belt Alternate 3
10th "kyū"White belt
9th "kyū"Red and White beltWhite beltWhite belt
8th "kyū"Yellow beltWhite beltYellow belt
7th "kyū"Orange beltWhite beltOrange belt
6th "kyū"Green beltGreen beltBlue belt
5th "kyū"Blue beltGreen beltPurple belt
4th "kyū"Purple beltGreen beltGreen belt
3rd "kyū"Junior Brown beltBrown beltBrown belt
2nd "kyū"Senior Brown/white striped beltBrown beltBrown belt
1st "kyū"Black/white striped beltBrown beltBrown belt
1st–10th "dan"Black beltBlack beltBlack belt

The rank at which Wado practitioners are first able to teach is usually 3rd "dan", but this depends on the organization. Some Wado ryu organizations require completion of a special course in addition to attaining a certain "dan" rank.

Schools that use the same belt color for multiple "kyu" ranks typically use stripes to indicate progress within that belt color.

Kata

"Kata" are predefined, specific patterns of movement that incorporate and encapsulate martial techniques, concepts, and applications. The exact movements of a "kata" often vary from one organization to another, and even from one school to another within the same organization. The variations can range from gross deviations apparent to the untrained observer to very subtle minutiae. In his 1977 book on Wadō-ryū (published in English in 1997), Ōtsuka Sensei declared only nine official "kata" for Wadō-ryū: "Pinan Shodan", "Pinan Nidan", "Pinan Sandan", "Pinan Yondan", "Pinan Godan", "Kūsankū", "Naihanchi", "Chinto", and "Seishan". [Otsuka 1997, p.72] Within his text, Ōtsuka Sensei provides detailed notes on the performance of these "kata", which has resulted in less deviation across organizations on their performance. However, Ōtsuka Sensei did teach other "kata". Perhaps because Ōtsuka Sensei did not provide specific notes for the performance of these other "kata" in his text, there is greater variation in these other "kata" across organizations and schools. "Kata" associated with Wadō-ryū include:

* "Ten-No": basic drills first invented by Gigō Funakoshi (son of Gichin Funakoshi).
* "Taikyoku series": developed by Gichin Funakoshi as a preliminary exercise before the "Pinan" series; many Wadō-ryū schools teach these basic "kata", particularly "Taikyoku Shodan" (太極初段).
* "Pinan" kata: created by Ankō Itosu, and consisting of "Pinan Shodan" (平安初段), "Pinan Nidan" (平安二段), "Pinan Sandan" (平安三段), "Pinan Yodan" (平安四段), and "Pinan Godan" (平安五段). Funakoshi renamed this series as the "Heian" series.: "Sky Viewing". Kūsankū was the Okinawan name for Kwang Shang Fu, a Sapposhi (emissary of China's ruling class) sent to Okinawa in the 18th century. This "kata" uses stances and attacks comprising of the five previous "Pinan kata". No new techniques are introduced. Funakoshi renamed this "kata" as "Kanku Dai".
* Naihanchi" (内畔戦; also known as "Naifanchi"): this was the original name for the three "Tekki kata", but was changed by Funakoshi. This is a lateral "kata" learned from Chōki Motobu. Wadō-ryū practices only the third Naihanchi "kata".
* "Kūsankū"
* "Seishan" : the name means "13 hands." This "kata" was named after a well-known Chinese martial artist who lived in or near Shuri "c." 1700. The movements are repeated in sets of three, and has pivots and turning of the head. Funakoshi renamed this "kata" as Hangetsu.
* "Passai" (披塞; also known as "Bassai"): a Tomari-te "kata" that uses dynamic stances and hip rotation. Funakoshi renamed this "kata" as "Bassai Dai".
* "Chinto" : formulated by Matsumura Sōkon from the teachings of a sailor or pirate named Chinto (or Annan, depending on the source). Crane stance occurs many times, and the flying kicks differentiate "Chinto" from other "kata". Funakoshi renamed this "kata" as Gankaku.
* "Rōhai" .
* "Niseishi" (二十四步): the name means "24 steps." Transmitted by Ankichi Aragaki, this "kata" is known in Japanese as Nijushiho.
* "Wanshu" : the name means "flying swallow." This is a Tomari-te "kata" based on movements brought to Okinawa in 1683 by a Chinese envoy of the same name. The metaphorical name, "Flying Swallows," comes from the soft blocking sequences near the end of this "kata". Funakoshi renamed this "kata" as Empi.
* "Jion" : A Tomari-te "kata"; part of the "Jion kata" group.
* "Jitte" : another Tomari-te "kata" of the "Jion kata" group; the name means "10 hands."
* "Suparinpei" : known as "108 hands," representing the 108 evil spirits of man. This "kata" is also said to have represented a band of 108 warriors that travelled the Chinese countryside in the 1600s, performing 'Robin Hood'-type tasks of doing good deeds, giving to the poor, and so on. It is also known by its Chinese name of Pechurrin, and occasionally referred to as "Haiku Hachi Ho" (a name given by Funakoshi). "Suparinpei" was originally listed as a Wadō-ryū "kata" with the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai by Hironori Ōtsuka, but he eventually discarded it. Some Wadō-ryū instructors and schools still teach this "kata".

In addition to the solo "kata" listed above, many Wadō-ryū schools also practice paired "kata", which reflects its jujutsu heritage. These paired "kata" are performed by two people (one as the attacker and one as the defender), demonstrating a range of self-defense techniques. The paired "kata" of Wadō-ryū often vary from one organization from another, because Ōtsuka did not standardize them. The paired "kata" are:

* "Yakusoku Kihon Kumite": consists of 10 fundamental techniques of attack against combination attacks (combinations of kicks and punches), influenced by jujutsu body movements.
* "Kumite Gata": consists of 10 - 24 varietal techniques (depending on the organization) of attack emphasizing Katamae (pinning) and Kuzushi (breaking balance) and multiple strikes.
* "Sanbon Kumite": consists of various techniques of attack, incorporating Karate blocks, kicks and strikes with jujutsu throws and body movements. This is a specialty of Tatsuo Suzuki Hanshi's W.I.K.F organization.
* "Idori no Kata": consists of 5–10 techniques (depending on the organization) of seated self-defense, influenced by jujutsu throwing and joint-locking techniques.
* "Tantodori no Kata": consists of 7–10 techniques (depending on the organization) of defenses against knife attacks, influenced by jujutsu body movements, throwing, and joint-locking techniques.
* "Shinken Shirahadori": consists of 5-10 (depending on organization) techniques of defenses against sword attacks, influenced by jujutsu body movements, throwing, and joint-locking techniques.

In addition to the three paired "kata" above, there are also "Gyakunage Kata" ("kata" of throwing), "Joshi Goshinjutsu" ("kata" of women's self-defense), and some others, but they are not commonly taught.

History

The founder of Wadō-ryū, Hironori Ōtsuka, was born on 1 June 1892 in Shimodate, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. In 1898, Ōtsuka began practicing "Koryu jujutsu" under Chojiro Ebashi. From 1905–1921, he studied Shindō Yōshin-ryū jujutsu under Tatsusaburo Nakayama. In 1922, he met Gichin Funakoshi and began to train under him. In 1924, Ōtsuka became one of the first students promoted to black belt in karate by Funakoshi. In 1929, Ōtsuka organized the first school karate club at Tokyo University. Eiichi Eriguchi coined the term 'Wadō-ryū' in 1934.Fact|date=September 2007

In 1938, Ōtsuka registered his style of karate with the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai under the name of "Shinshu Wadoryu Karate-Jujutsu." Soon after, however, this was shortened to "Wadō-ryū" (和道流). In 1938, the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai awarded Ōtsuka the rank of "Renshi-Go", followed in 1942 by the rank of "Kyoshi-Go". It was around this time that Tatsuo Suzuki, founder of the WIKF, began training in Wadō-ryū. In 1944, Ōtsuka was appointed Japan's Chief Karate Instructor.Fact|date=September 2007 In 1946, Ōtsuka awarded Tatsuo Suzuki the rank of 2nd "dan".

Around 1950, Jiro Ōtsuka (the founder's second son) began training in Wadō-ryū while in his adolescent years. In 1951, Ōtsuka awarded Suzuki the rank of 5th "dan", the highest rank awarded in Wadō-ryū at that time. In 1952, the Wadō-ryū headquarters ("honbu") was established at the Meiji University dojo in Tokyo. In 1954, its name was changed to "Zen Nippon Karate Renmei" (All Japan Karate Federation). In 1955, Ōtsuka published "Karatejutsu no Kenkyu," a book expounding his style of karate. In 1963, he dispatched Suzuki, along with Toru Arakawa and Hajimu Takashima, to spread Wadō-ryū around the world.

In 1964, the Japan Karatedo Federation (JKF) was established as a general organization for all karate styles. Wadō-ryū joined this organization as a major group. In 1965, Ōtsuka and Yoshiaki Ajari recorded onto film (which is now still available on two video tapes) much of the legacy of Wadō-ryū karate. The first video, "Wadō-ryū Karate Volume 1," consists of: in-depth history and recollections; demonstrations of the eight "Kihon No Tsuki" body shifts; the first five "Kihon-Kumite"; and the "kata" "Pinan" 1-5, "Kūsankū", "Jion", "Naihanchi", and "Seishan". The second video, "Wadō-ryū Karate Volume 2," consists of: more history; the "kata" "Chinto", "Niseshi", "Rōhai", "Wanshu", and "Jitte"; as well as "Kihon-Kumite" 6-10, along with applicationd. In 1966, Ōtsuka was awarded Kun Goto Soukuo Kyokujujutsu (comparable to a knighthood) by Emperor Hirohito for his dedication to the introduction and teaching of karate.Fact|date=September 2007 On 5 June 1967 , the Wadō-ryū organization changed its name to "Wadōkai."

In 1972, the President of Kokusai Budo Renmei, a member of the Japanese royal family, awarded Ōtsuka the title of "Meijin". In 1975, Suzuki received his 8th "dan", the highest grade ever given (at the time) by the Federation of All Japan Karatedo Organizations, and was named "Hanshi-Go" by the uncle of Emperor Higashikuni.Fact|date=September 2007

In 1980, as the result of a conflict between Ōtsuka and the Wadōkai organization, he stepped down as head of the Wadōkai. Eiichi Eriguchi took over his place within that organization. On 1 April 1981, Ōtsuka founded the "Wadōryū Karatedō Renmei." ("Renmei" means "group" or "federation.") After only a few months, he retired as head of this organization. His son, Jiro Ōtsuka, took his place. On 29 January 1982, Hironori Ōtsuka passed away, and in 1983, Jiro Ōtsuka succeeded him as grandmaster of Wadō-ryū. The younger Ōtsuka changed his name to "Hironori Otsuka II" in honor of his late father. In 1989, Tatsuo Suzuki founded the third major Wadō-ryū organization, "Wadō Kokusai" (Wadō International Karatedō Federation; WIKF). ("Kokusai" means "international.")

Wadō-ryū outside Japan

Wadō-ryū has been spread to many countries in the world, by both Japanese and non-Japanese students of Hironori Otsuka. Japanese Wadō-ryū stylists Tatsuo Suzuki, Teruo Kono, Masafumi Shiomitsu, H. Takashima, Naoki Ishikawa, Yoshio Iwasaki and many others spread the art in Europe. Yoshiaki Ajari and Masaru Shintani spread the art in USA and Canada. Also, non-Japanese such as C.A. Taman (from Indonesia, also the founder of Goshinbudo Jujutsu Indonesia), Joaquim Gonçalves (from Portugal) and many others has helped to spread the style in their respective countries. In 1968, Otsuka Sensei promoted Cecil T. Patterson of the USA to 5th "dan", and charged him with the creation of the United States Eastern Wado-Kai Federation (USEWF). [Patterson 1974, pg. 4] Following the split between Otsuka Sensei and the Wado-Kai in 1980, Patterson and the USEWF (renamed United State Eastern Wado-Ryu Karate Federation) remained with Otsuka Sensei and is an active member of the Wadōryū Karatedō Renmei.

Notes

References

* Cody, M.E. (2008). "Wado Ryu Karate / Jujutsu", AuthorHouse, ISBN 978-1-4343-1988-3.
* Ohgami, S. (1981). "Karate Katas of Wadoryu", Japanska Magasinet, ISBN 9197023108.
* Ohgami, S. (1984). "Introduction to Karate", Japanska Magasinet, ISBN 9197023116.
* Otsuka, H. (1997). "Wado Ryu Karate", Masters Publication, ISBN 0-920129-18-8.
* Patterson, C.T. (1974). "An Introduction to Wado-Ryu Karate", Ohara Publications, Inc.
* Shiomitsu, M. (1985). "Dynamic Kicking Method", Dragon Books, ISBN 0946062072.

External links

* [http://www.art-of-budo.com/ Descriptions and videos] of kihon, kumite and kata
* [http://www.usko-karate.co.uk USKO Sport Karate] (England)
* [http://www.geocities.com/keikoden/Wado.htm Brief History of Wado]
* [http://www.aikw.ie/wado-history.html Wado history]
* [http://www.martialarm.com/history/wado-ryu.html The History of Wadō-ryū Karate]
* [http://www.wadoworld.com Wadoworld.com]
* [http://www.wado-ryu.jp/home1/home1.htm International Federation of Wado-Ryu Karate-Do]
* [http://www.wikf.com// Wado International Karate-Do Federation (WIKF)]
* [http://www.shinyokai.com// Takamura ha Shindo Yoshin Kai (TSYR)]
* [http://www.france-wadokai.com/ France Wado Kai]
* [http://www.wado.ca Wado Karate Association of Canada]
* [http://www.wadoacademy.com Wado Academy]
* [http://www.americanwadoacademy.com Wado Academy USA]
* [http://www.irishkarate.com Wado-Kai Karate In Northern Ireland]
* [http://www.wadoryu.ca Canadian Wado Ryu Karate Federation]


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