Generał (pronounced IPA| [gɛ'nɛraw] ) is the generic Polish language term for the rank of General. In narrow sense it is used to denote the rank of a Four-star general introduced on August 15, 2002. It is currently the highest military rank of the Polish Army, with the rank of Marshal of Poland currently being unused. The symbols of the rank are the "wężyk generalski" (pronounced IPA| ['vɛ̃ʐɨk gɛnɛ'ralskʲi] ), or "general's wavy line", and four stars, featured both on the rogatywka, sleeves of the uniform and above the breast pocket of a field uniform.

In Polish military traditions the highest rank was always the rank of Marshal of Poland, with three General's grades below. However, the system differed significantly from other systems of rank insignia used in both armies of the Warsaw Pact and the NATO. Because of lack of the rank of four star general, the Polish ranks were usually a grade higher than their name suggested. Thus the rank of Generał brygady was an equivalent of Major General rather than Brigadier General as the name suggested.

In 1954, during the integration of the Polish Army with the structures of the Warsaw Pact (and, more precisely, of the Red Army), a new rank of "generał armii" (General of an Army) was introduced, as a direct copy of the Soviet rank of "Генерал армии". However, after the death of Joseph Stalin and the end of Stalinism in Poland, the general officers rank structure returned to the pre-war pattern. In 1981 Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski (being at this time the 1st Secretary of the Communist Party, the Prime Minister and the Minister of the National Defense) introduced again the rank of general of the army. As the only person to hold the newly-introduced rank, he was thought of as an "ersatz-Marshal", as he could not promote himself to the rank of Marshal of Poland after the death of Marian Spychalski. In 1995 the rank was yet again abolished and the only people to still hold it are Jaruzelski and Gen. Florian Siwicki, both retired.

However, with Poland's entry into the structures of NATO a need arose to unify the Polish rank system with that of English speaking countries (and more precisely, the USA). Hence the rank of a "Generał" was introduced. The rank of Marshall of Poland remains as the "war time" rank, given to the chief of general staff in case of war or a successful military commander after a victorious campaign.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • General — es un rango militar. Se encuentra en la cima de la jerarquía castrense, sobre los oficiales superiores (comandante, teniente coronel, coronel), los oficiales (alférez, teniente, capitán; que son en la Armada alférez de fragata, alférez de navío y …   Wikipedia Español

  • General — General, Plural Generale oder Generäle (beide Formen sind korrekt), bezeichnet beim Militär einerseits den Sammelbegriff für die höchste Dienstgradgruppe, die Generalität, andererseits in den meisten Staaten den im Frieden höchsten Dienstgrad bei …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • General — Gen er*al, a. [F. g[ e]n[ e]ral, fr. L. generalis. See {Genus}.] 1. Relating to a genus or kind; pertaining to a whole class or order; as, a general law of animal or vegetable economy. [1913 Webster] 2. Comprehending many species or individuals;… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Général — is the French word for General. In France, Army generals are named after the type of unit they command. In ascending order there are two ranks : * . * .Officers of the rank of Général de Division can receive different positions and styles ( rang… …   Wikipedia

  • General — Gen er*al, n. [F. g[ e]n[ e]ral. See {General}., a.] [1913 Webster] 1. The whole; the total; that which comprehends or relates to all, or the chief part; opposed to particular. [1913 Webster] In particulars our knowledge begins, and so spreads… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • General — General, höchste Rangklasse der Offiziere. Generalität: Gesamtheit der Generale. Der unterste Grad ist der Generalmajor, in Frankreich früher maréchal de camp, jetzt général de brigade, Brigadegeneral, meist Befehlshaber von Brigaden einer Waffe …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • General Re — Отрасль услуги перестрахования Число сотрудников 2.500 Сайт …   Википедия

  • General [2] — General, ein Offizier, der mehr als 1 Regiment commandirt, in mehreren Stufen, die jedoch nicht in allen Staaten gleich bezeichnet werden; gewöhnl.: G.major (Maréchal de camp), G.lieutenant oder Feldmarschallieutenant; G. der Infanterie od.… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Generál — Allgemeine Informationen Genre(s) Rock Gründung 1972 Auflösung 1979 Gründungsmitg …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • General — General, 1) (Conus generalis), eine Art Kegelschnecke, gelblichbraun, mit weißen, abgesetzten Binden u. spitzigem Wirbel; 2) mehrere Spielarten von Nelken u. Tulpen; auch mit Zusätzen, wie: G. de Goute, G. Lentulus etc …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”