- Right-to-left shunt
A right-to-left shunt is a cardiac shunt which allows, or is designed to cause,
bloodto flow from the right heartto the left heart. [DorlandsDict|seven/000096626|right-to-left shunt] This terminology is used both for the abnormal state in humans and for normal physiological shunts in reptiles.
A right-to-left shunt occurs when:
#there is an opening or passage between the
atria, ventricles, and/or great vessels; "and",
#right heart pressure is higher than left heart pressure and/or the shunt has a one-way valvular opening.
The most common cause of right-to-left shunt is the
Tetralogy of Fallot, a congenital cardiac anomaly characterized by four co-existing heart defects. The four defects include:
Pulmonary stenosis(narrowing of the pulmonary valve and outflow tract, obstructing blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery)
Ventricular septal defect(defect in the ventricular septum, which divides the left and right ventricles of the heart)
Overriding aorta(aortic valve is enlarged and appears to arise from both the left and right ventricles instead of the left ventricle, as occurs in normal hearts)
ventricular hypertrophy(thickening of the muscular walls of the right ventricle)
A right to left shunt frequently causes
Because most reptiles have a single ventricle and all reptiles have both a right aortic arch and a left aortic arch, all reptiles have the capacity for right-to-left shunt. Fact|date=August 2008
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