- Formal epistemology
**Formal epistemology**is a subdiscipline ofepistemology that utilizesformal methods fromlogic ,probability theory andcomputability theory to elucidate traditional epistemic problems.**Topics**Some of the topics that come under the heading of formal epistemology include:

*Ampliative inference (includinginductive logic );

*Game theory anddecision theory ;

*Algorithmic learning theory (computational epistemology );

* Formal theories ofcoherence ;

* Foundations ofprobability andstatistics ;

* Formal approaches toparadoxes of belief and/or action.**History**Though formally oriented epistemologists have been laboring since the emergence of

formal logic (if not earlier), only recently have they been organized under a common disciplinary title. This gain in popularity may be attributed to the organization of yearly Formal Epistemology Workshops by [*http://fitelson.org Branden Fitelson*] andSahotra Sarkar , starting in 2004, and the recentPHILOG -conferences starting in 2002 (The Network for Philosophical Logic and Its Applications) organized byVincent F. Hendricks .**Contemporary Formal Epistemologists*** [

*http://www.hss.cmu.edu/philosophy/faculty-arlocosta.php Horacio Arló-Costa*] , Department of Philosophy, Carnegie Mellon University (Bayesian epistemology, epistemic logic, belief revision, conditionals, rational choice, normative and behavioral decision theory)

*Luc Bovens (Bayesian epistemology, probability, etc)

* Darren Bradley (Sleeping Beauty, Doomsday, etc)

* [*http://www.sci.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~schopra Samir Chopra*] (belief revision, physics, etc)

* John Collins (knowledge, causation, vagueness, etc.)

* [*http://www.personeel.unimaas.nl/f.dietrich Franz Dietrich*] (collective decision-making, etc.)

* Ellery Eells (confirmation, probability)

*Adam Elga (probabilistic reasoning, laws, etc)

* [*http://fitelson.org Branden Fitelson*] (confirmation, logic, etc)

*Malcolm Forster (confirmation, simplicity, causation)

* Anthony Gillies (belief revision, formal semantics)

* [*http://philrsss.anu.edu.au/people-defaults/alanh/index.php3 Alan Hájek*] (foundations of probability, decision theory, etc.)

*Joseph Halpern (reasoning about knowledge and uncertainty)

*Sven Ove Hansson (risk, decision theory, belief revision, deontic logic)

*Gilbert Harman (epistemology, statistical learning theory, mind and language)

* [*http://stephanhartmann.org Stephan Hartmann*] (Bayesian epistemology, probability, collective decision-making, etc.)

* [*http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/H/James.A.Hawthorne-1 James Hawthorne*] (confirmation theory, inductive logic, belief revision, nonmonotonic logic)

*Vincent F. Hendricks (epistemic logic, formal epistemology)

* [*http://www.uni-konstanz.de/philosophie/huber/ Franz Huber*] (formal epistemology, philosophy of science, philosophical logic)

*Richard Jeffrey (probabilistic reasoning)

* James Joyce (decision theory)

* [*http://www.hss.cmu.edu/philosophy/faculty-kelly.php Kevin T. Kelly*] , Department of Philosophy, Carnegie Mellon University (computational epistemology, belief revision, etc)

* Marion Ledwig (Newcomb's problem)

* [*http://www.bris.ac.uk/philosophy/department/staff/hl.html Hannes Leitgeb*] (belief revision, probability, Bayesianism, etc.)

*Isaac Levi (belief revision)

*Patrick Maher (confirmation, inductive logic)

* David Miller (probability, induction, logic, Popper)

* [*http://lucamoretti.org Luca Moretti*] (confirmation, coherence, transmission of warrant, epistemic truth)

*Daniel Osherson (inductive logic, reasoning, vagueness)

*Gabriella Pigozzi (belief revision, decision theory)

* John Pollock (decision theory, reasoning, AI)

* [*http://seis.bris.ac.uk/~pldpr/ Darrell Rowbottom*] (foundations of probability, confirmation, philosophy of science, etc.)

* [*http://www.hss.cmu.edu/philosophy/faculty-seidenfeld.php Teddy Seidenfeld*] Department of Philosophy, Carnegie Mellon University (statistical decision theory, probability theory, game theory)

* [*http://www.uni-konstanz.de/philosophie/Spohn/spohn.shtml Wolfgang Spohn*] (reasoning, probability, causation, philosophy of science, etc)

* Paul Thorn (direct inference, defeasible reasoning, induction, etc)

* Peter Vranas (confirmation, deontic logic, time travel, ethics, etc)

* [*http://centria.fct.unl.pt/~greg/research.html Gregory Wheeler*] (statistical reasoning, default logic, probabilistic logic)

* Roger White (confirmation, cosmology)

* [*http://www.kent.ac.uk/secl/philosophy/jw/ Jon Williamson*] (Bayesianism, probability, causation)

*Timothy Williamson (knowledge, modality, logic, vagueness, etc)

* David Wolpert (No Free Lunch theorems, i.e., Hume done rigorously; physics and inference, i.e., monotheism theorems, Chomsky hierarchy of inference devices, etc.)**References***Bovens, L. and Hartmann, S. (2003). Bayesian Epistemology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

*Hendricks, V. F. (2001). The Convergence of Scientific Knowledge: A View from The Limit. Dordrect: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

*Hendricks, V. F. (2006). Mainstream and Formal Epistemology. New York: Cambridge University Press.

*Hendricks, V. F. (ed.) (2006). Special issue on “8 Bridges Between Mainstream and Formal Epistemology”, Philosophical Studies.

*Hendricks, V. F. (ed.) (2006). Special issue on “Ways of Worlds I-II”, Studia Logica.

*Hendricks, V.F. and Pritchard, D. (eds.) (2006). New Waves in Epistemology. Aldershot: Ashgate.

*Hendricks, V. F. and Symons, J. (eds.) (2005). Formal Philosophy. New York:Automatic Press / VIP . [*http://www.formalphilosophy.com*]

*Hendricks, V. F. and Symons, J. (eds.) (2006). Masses of Formal Philosophy. New York: Automatic Press / VIP. [*http://www.formalphilosophy.com/Masses*]

*Hendricks, V. F. and Hansen, P.G. (eds.) (2007). Game Theory: 5 Questions. New York: Automatic Press / VIP. [*http://www.gametheorists.com*]

*Hendricks, V.F. and Symons, J. (2006). Epistemic Logic. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford. CA: USA.

*Wolpert, D.H., (1996) The lack of a priori distinctions between learning algorithms, Neural Computation, pp. 1341-1390.

*Wolpert, D.H., (1996) The existence of a priori distinctions between learning algorithms, Neural Computation, pp. 1391-1420.

*Wolpert, D.H., (2001) Computational capabilities of physical systems. Physical Review E, 65(016128).

*Zhu, H.Y. and R. Rohwer, (1996) No free lunch for cross-validation, pp. 1421- 1426.**External links*** [

*http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~fitelson/few/ Formal Epistemology Workshop*]

* [*http://webapp.utexas.edu/blogs/archives/sarkarlab/cat_formal_epistemology.html Formal Epistemology Archive*]

* [*http://www.phil.cmu.edu/~summerschool/ Carnegie Mellon Summer School in Logic and Formal Epistemology*]

* [*http://www.formalphilosophy.com/ Formal Philosophy*]

* [*http://www.formalepistemology.org/index.php/journal Formal Epistemology*] , a free online journal.**ee also***

Algorithmic learning theory

*Bayesian inference

*Belief revision

*Computability theory

*Computational learning theory

*Decision theory

*Epistemology

*Game theory

*Inductive logic

*Machine learning

*Probability theory

*Statistics

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