- Formal epistemology
Formal epistemology is a subdiscipline of
epistemologythat utilizes formal methodsfrom logic, probability theoryand computability theoryto elucidate traditional epistemic problems.
Some of the topics that come under the heading of formal epistemology include:
Ampliative inference(including inductive logic);
Game theoryand decision theory;
Algorithmic learning theory( computational epistemology);
* Formal theories of
* Foundations of
* Formal approaches to
paradoxesof belief and/or action.
Though formally oriented epistemologists have been laboring since the emergence of
formal logic(if not earlier), only recently have they been organized under a common disciplinary title. This gain in popularity may be attributed to the organization of yearly Formal Epistemology Workshops by [http://fitelson.org Branden Fitelson] and Sahotra Sarkar, starting in 2004, and the recent PHILOG-conferences starting in 2002 (The Network for Philosophical Logic and Its Applications) organized by Vincent F. Hendricks.
Contemporary Formal Epistemologists
* [http://www.hss.cmu.edu/philosophy/faculty-arlocosta.php Horacio Arló-Costa] , Department of Philosophy, Carnegie Mellon University (Bayesian epistemology, epistemic logic, belief revision, conditionals, rational choice, normative and behavioral decision theory)
Luc Bovens(Bayesian epistemology, probability, etc)
* Darren Bradley (Sleeping Beauty, Doomsday, etc)
* [http://www.sci.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~schopra Samir Chopra] (belief revision, physics, etc)
* John Collins (knowledge, causation, vagueness, etc.)
* [http://www.personeel.unimaas.nl/f.dietrich Franz Dietrich] (collective decision-making, etc.)
* Ellery Eells (confirmation, probability)
Adam Elga(probabilistic reasoning, laws, etc)
* [http://fitelson.org Branden Fitelson] (confirmation, logic, etc)
Malcolm Forster(confirmation, simplicity, causation)
* Anthony Gillies (belief revision, formal semantics)
* [http://philrsss.anu.edu.au/people-defaults/alanh/index.php3 Alan Hájek] (foundations of probability, decision theory, etc.)
Joseph Halpern(reasoning about knowledge and uncertainty)
Sven Ove Hansson(risk, decision theory, belief revision, deontic logic)
Gilbert Harman(epistemology, statistical learning theory, mind and language)
* [http://stephanhartmann.org Stephan Hartmann] (Bayesian epistemology, probability, collective decision-making, etc.)
* [http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/H/James.A.Hawthorne-1 James Hawthorne] (confirmation theory, inductive logic, belief revision, nonmonotonic logic)
Vincent F. Hendricks(epistemic logic, formal epistemology)
* [http://www.uni-konstanz.de/philosophie/huber/ Franz Huber] (formal epistemology, philosophy of science, philosophical logic)
Richard Jeffrey(probabilistic reasoning)
* James Joyce (decision theory)
* [http://www.hss.cmu.edu/philosophy/faculty-kelly.php Kevin T. Kelly] , Department of Philosophy, Carnegie Mellon University (computational epistemology, belief revision, etc)
* Marion Ledwig (Newcomb's problem)
* [http://www.bris.ac.uk/philosophy/department/staff/hl.html Hannes Leitgeb] (belief revision, probability, Bayesianism, etc.)
Isaac Levi(belief revision)
Patrick Maher(confirmation, inductive logic)
* David Miller (probability, induction, logic, Popper)
* [http://lucamoretti.org Luca Moretti] (confirmation, coherence, transmission of warrant, epistemic truth)
Daniel Osherson(inductive logic, reasoning, vagueness)
Gabriella Pigozzi(belief revision, decision theory)
* John Pollock (decision theory, reasoning, AI)
* [http://seis.bris.ac.uk/~pldpr/ Darrell Rowbottom] (foundations of probability, confirmation, philosophy of science, etc.)
* [http://www.hss.cmu.edu/philosophy/faculty-seidenfeld.php Teddy Seidenfeld] Department of Philosophy, Carnegie Mellon University (statistical decision theory, probability theory, game theory)
* [http://www.uni-konstanz.de/philosophie/Spohn/spohn.shtml Wolfgang Spohn] (reasoning, probability, causation, philosophy of science, etc)
* Paul Thorn (direct inference, defeasible reasoning, induction, etc)
* Peter Vranas (confirmation, deontic logic, time travel, ethics, etc)
* [http://centria.fct.unl.pt/~greg/research.html Gregory Wheeler] (statistical reasoning, default logic, probabilistic logic)
* Roger White (confirmation, cosmology)
* [http://www.kent.ac.uk/secl/philosophy/jw/ Jon Williamson] (Bayesianism, probability, causation)
Timothy Williamson(knowledge, modality, logic, vagueness, etc)
* David Wolpert (No Free Lunch theorems, i.e., Hume done rigorously; physics and inference, i.e., monotheism theorems, Chomsky hierarchy of inference devices, etc.)
*Bovens, L. and Hartmann, S. (2003). Bayesian Epistemology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
*Hendricks, V. F. (2001). The Convergence of Scientific Knowledge: A View from The Limit. Dordrect: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
*Hendricks, V. F. (2006). Mainstream and Formal Epistemology. New York: Cambridge University Press.
*Hendricks, V. F. (ed.) (2006). Special issue on “8 Bridges Between Mainstream and Formal Epistemology”, Philosophical Studies.
*Hendricks, V. F. (ed.) (2006). Special issue on “Ways of Worlds I-II”, Studia Logica.
*Hendricks, V.F. and Pritchard, D. (eds.) (2006). New Waves in Epistemology. Aldershot: Ashgate.
*Hendricks, V. F. and Symons, J. (eds.) (2005). Formal Philosophy. New York:
Automatic Press / VIP. [http://www.formalphilosophy.com]
*Hendricks, V. F. and Symons, J. (eds.) (2006). Masses of Formal Philosophy. New York: Automatic Press / VIP. [http://www.formalphilosophy.com/Masses]
*Hendricks, V. F. and Hansen, P.G. (eds.) (2007). Game Theory: 5 Questions. New York: Automatic Press / VIP. [http://www.gametheorists.com]
*Hendricks, V.F. and Symons, J. (2006). Epistemic Logic. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford. CA: USA.
*Wolpert, D.H., (1996) The lack of a priori distinctions between learning algorithms, Neural Computation, pp. 1341-1390.
*Wolpert, D.H., (1996) The existence of a priori distinctions between learning algorithms, Neural Computation, pp. 1391-1420.
*Wolpert, D.H., (2001) Computational capabilities of physical systems. Physical Review E, 65(016128).
*Zhu, H.Y. and R. Rohwer, (1996) No free lunch for cross-validation, pp. 1421- 1426.
* [http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~fitelson/few/ Formal Epistemology Workshop]
* [http://webapp.utexas.edu/blogs/archives/sarkarlab/cat_formal_epistemology.html Formal Epistemology Archive]
* [http://www.phil.cmu.edu/~summerschool/ Carnegie Mellon Summer School in Logic and Formal Epistemology]
* [http://www.formalphilosophy.com/ Formal Philosophy]
* [http://www.formalepistemology.org/index.php/journal Formal Epistemology] , a free online journal.
Algorithmic learning theory
Computational learning theory
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