- List of islands of Kuwait
Kuwaithas nine islands (ten including one former island). They are indicated on the NASAsatellite image and listed in the table in order from north to south:
Geography of Kuwait
List of islands
* [http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/mapImages/41f15a92e43eb.pdf map of maritime boundaries]
The Coral Reefs in this region are included in the regular ongoing voluntary work of the renowned award winning Kuwait Dive Team (KDT) - a group voted by United Nations as the best in the world. KDT can provide enthusiasts with info about the local islands and marine life: www.freekuwait.org/english/index.html
Team’s Mission:The Kuwait Dive Team consists of Kuwaiti young males and senior Kuwaiti men with a wide range of experience who rescue, as well as rehabilitate their Marine Environment through dedicated and distinct coastal sea operations.
Team’s Values:The Kuwait Dive Team’s values are teamwork, humanitarianism, voluntary work, organizational work, leadership, distinction, sacrifice, patriotism and dedicated environmental projects.
General Objectives: 1. Rehabilitating and protecting the marine environment.2. Encouraging voluntary activities to serve the environment.3. Qualifying Kuwaiti staff in marine projects and specialized operations.
Team Leader Waleed Al-Fadhel Deputy Leader Waleed Al-Shatti Jaber Al-Kuwait ReefsOne Team… One Dream
Jaber Al-Kuwait Reefs is a dedicated, voluntary work project,for the environment and people.
Jaber Al-Kuwait ReefsProject Ideal Basis:Establishing and installing concrete bulks on the sea bed with appropriate depths to locate coral reefs, fish and other creatures as well.
What are Coral Reefs?Corals are invertebrates including mollusks and callous, which are very common, as well as the non-comprising reefs (in which composition does not have reefs) and the reef composition types (composing the reef’s main structure). Coral contains in its tissues, carrageen cells which are the basic power generating source for structuring reefs.
Reference:Corals and Coral Reef Fish, Kuwait Scientific Research Institute.
Coral Reef Importance:• Sea Parks composed of wonderful marine compositions.• Food stores for seas.• One of the main factors of islands’ composition and natural protectors.• The most important life cycles of marine environment.• Shelter and refuge for fish and marine creatures.• National, Research and Tourist Resource.
Main Factors of Coral Rarity:• Geographic distance from world centre biological diversity (oceans).• Narrowness of Hermes Strait entrance limits larva-bearing saline water.• Instability of the Gulf Marine Environment.Arabian Gulf is a relatively recent marine area as water dried during the sea levels reliction twenty thousand years ago. [Gradual recession of water leaving land permanently uncovered.]
Main drives for establishing Artificial Reefs in Kuwait:• Rarity of Coral Reef composition factors.• Limitedness of coral reef prevalence area.• Natural and human destruction of coral reefs.• Success of global experiments in this field.• Promoting the Team's marine, environmental and navigational skills, as well as abilities.Aims of establishing large reefs:• Providing an environment suitable for coral growth and hosting fish.• Attracting and employing amateur divers.• Promoting the divers' awareness of monitoring coral reef growth.• Establishing a National Under-water Park.• Reduce pressure on divers' recurrent diving to natural coral reefs.
Large reefs components and description:• Containing five concrete models with a total weight of 280 tons.• 51 side pieces with a total weight of 62 tons.• 10 cubic pieces with a total weight of 62 tons.• 10 cylinder pieces with a total weight of 70 tons.• 10 compound pieces with a total weight of 60 tons.• 10 small compound pieces with a total weight of 35 tons.• Sea bed depth during high tide is 10 metres.• Reef length is approximately 300 metres.• Total area of the location is 2400 square metres.
Why Bneida Area?• A traditional diving location for Kuwaitis.• Limit of waves' level.• Location proximity to the coast.• Success of previous experiments in the same location.
Coral Reef Fish:• Coral Reef Fish are different from other species with vivid colours. They are similar to the coral reefs' colours, enabling both large and small fish to be easily concealed, which is complimentary to and essential for the reef’s life. The most prominent of these fish are Hamour, Anfouz, Emad Croop, Bride's Comb, Emad, Sheneno, Fuscar, and Burtam.Participating Authorities:• Kuwait Oil Company (KOC), Al-Ahmadi Port.• Kuwait National Petroleum Company (KNPC).• Kuwaiti Buildings and Construction Company.• Al-Khorafi Company.• Industrial Buildings and Constructions Company.• Kuwaiti Ports Institution.• Ministry of Public Works.• Ministry of Information.• Mobile Telecommunications Company (MTC).• Public Environment Authority.• Consumer Co-operative Society Union.• Tourist Enterprises Company.• Ministry of Interior (Coast Guard Department).• Public Fire Department.• Ministry of Health.
Instructions to be followed when anchoring at the Grand Reef:• Kindly use marine moorings on anchoring besides the reef.• It is not allowed to use any means of fishing except angles, snares, water guns, fishing nets or other means of fisheries.• It is not permitted to contact or touch any parts of the reefs or feed fish.• Be careful on entering into other chambers and reefs.• Ensure the safety of diving equipment.• Please follow all instructions and directives required for diving practitioners, especially from the Mate Diver.
Location Co-ordinates:• N: 28.45.650• E: 48.21.000 About UsAdvocates of the SeaKuwait Dive TeamDive Team's StoryClick here to download the Dive Team's StoryLearn about Kuwait Dive Team:Team Members:A group of Kuwaiti volunteers who perform activities and projects contributing to protecting and rehabilitating the marine environment since 1986.
Team Objectives:Encouraging voluntary activities, protecting and rehabilitating the marine environment, as well as qualifying Kuwaiti staff in the field of specialized marine environmental activities.
General Operating Policy:Highlighting the voluntary mission, relying on Kuwaiti nationals, following an experimentalism policy, utilizing others’ experiences and experiments, as well as executing dedicated national environmental projects. Team Fields of Business: Lifting submerged ships and vessels, rescuing marine creatures, remove fishing nets, concrete protectorates and coastal environments.• Environmental field• International field• International participation• International Media coverage• Artistic field • Documentary, media and photography fields • Training field • General activities field
Numbers and Facts:The Kuwait Dive Team removed 392 ships and boats with a total weight of 69271 tons and a total length of 12887 feet. Additionally, it removed 330 tons of oil and fuel pollutants during 82 marine operations. The Team established 21 artificial protectorates of processed concrete for Coral Reefs and fish. Their total weight being 900 tons and 7300 square metres of flat space. It contains 6500 holes as hideouts for various fish and marine creatures, as well as a concrete surface of 6300 square metres. The project was named "Jaber Al-Kuwait Reefs".The Dive Team rescued many marine creatures including three rare marine turtles from the Chlorine Basin in Al-Shuaiba Industrial Area, as well as 55 recently hatched sea turtles in Qaroh Island during 1999 and 2003 consecutively. Also, the Dive Team rescued three Russian Whales in the Swimming Pools’ Complex of the Tourist Enterprises Company.The Team performed 38 operations to remove fishing nets totalling 125 tons in weight, suspended in coral reefs. Also it lifted 95 tons of harmful residues from the Coral Reefs in Kobar, Um Al-Maradem and Qaroh Islands.The Team performed fourteen coastal environmental operations and removed more than 1611 tons of waste from a flat area of 38 thousand square metres within 39 days.The Team was filmed for more than twenty documentaries which inform viewers of their accomplishments, projects and actions which have been executed. All the documentaries have been broadcasted by innumerous agencies and world media channels.The Team relied mainly on governmental bodies’ support, in addition to that provided by local and national authorities, as well as individuals.The Team currently has eight under-water communication devices of high proficiency and professional performance which are used by divers to make contact with those on the surface, as well as retain contact with each other during their performance of various difficult tasks.The Team succeeded in lifting a submerged ship of 950 tons in the north of Kuwait and discharged it of fuels and oils weighing 250 tons, by using a craft intended for such purposes before initiating the operation of complete removal.All Team Members are Humanitarian Volunteers, who are not paid for doing their tasks.There are 130 members and the eldest among them is 45 years old whilst the youngest is 7 years old.Lifting an Iraqi fluvial ship in Al-Sibya Area to the north of Kuwait of a total weighing a total of 300 tons and removing clay residues from its trunk.Performing many air flights by means of vertical aviation (helicopters) to identify and register locations of coral reefs, as well as submerged vessels, boats and ships. The Dive Team removed many tons of waste and debris from the Kuwaiti coasts which are harmful to the marine environment, as well as 1145 tons of asbestos and many thousands of tons, of dead fish.The Dive Team Centre is capable of issuing more than thirty international certificates in diving fields according to American and French systems.The Team has a group of distinct and innovative members in the field of television and photography both on the sea surface and under-water.The Dive Team executed the largest project in the Arabian Gulf regarding the protection of Coral Reefs by stabilizing and maintaining 77 marine studs in Coral Reef locations.Also, it lifted and floated the historical Kuwaiti Boom “Fat’h Al-Kheir” with a total weight of 100 tons which is owned by the Kuwait Scientific Development Institution and is currently located at the Scientific Centre in the Ras Salmiya Area.Currently, the Team organises outreach programmes and activities for children and youth to engender love of the environment and participation in public coastal activities.Since 1995, the Team has a Website which won two international medals under the domain name www.freekuwait.com and it was amended to www.freekuwait.org
The Team Website was inserted into the 4th Intermediate Class Curriculum by the Kuwait Ministry of Education, as a national model of the worldwide web (www). The Team, as well, possesses an artistic workshop in which it prepares and arranges all marine projects, operations and activities.
The Team was honoured many times meeting His Royal Highness, the Amir of Kuwait [May Allah Protect Him] , as it was privileged by His Royal approval and support for voluntary marine programmes and projects.The Team won the most supreme international honouring of NAUI International Organization regarding International Environmental Achievement in 2000 and a model of the Dive Team's name was erected at the Organization venue’s entrance in America.
In 1998, the Team won the Environmental Personality Prize organized by the Kuwait Awqaf Public Foundation.The Team won the United Nations’ recognition award on the occasion of the U.N. Organization’s Golden Jubilee.It was also honoured by the Arabic Cities’ Organization.The Team was honoured on many different occasions by various governmental and private institutions.The Team organized many workshops with Dr Michael Jack Costa, the global French Marine Scientist concerning the marine moorings and studs, concrete protectorates project and the project of national campaign for protecting marine creatures. The Team is still, by the Grace of God [Allah] , tirelessly performing voluntary works and calling upon others to support such distinct environmental efforts of Kuwaitis. Team's ObjectivesVision:Forming a Kuwaiti Dive Team that is fully-equipped and skilled that is attempting offering environmental marine services in the form of voluntary work and gives to the society and world an example of national and environmental sacrifice.Mission:Kuwait Dive Teams is a team of divers who are Kuwaiti young men seeking to rescue and rehabilitate Kuwaiti marine environment through dedicated and distinct marine operations.Values:Teamwork, organizational work, leadership, distinction, sacrifice, patriotism, dedicated environmental projects, and voluntary work.Attitudes:Kuwaiti Assistance, Marine History, Environmental Challenges and Future Generations.Fields of Business (FOB):1- Marine Operations Field:Aim: A. Rescuing marine creatures and coral reefs.B. Rehabilitating the marine environment. General Objectives:A. Completing the project of marine moorings in Coral Reef locations.B. Completing the Jaber Al-Kuwait Reefs Project.C. Lifting operations.D. Operations of removing waste and fishing nets from coral reefs.E. Protecting and rehabilitating coastal environment operations.F. Coral Reefs’ recovery operations.2- Education, Media and Documentation Field:Aims:A. Proclaiming environmental awareness over different societal sections and groups.B. Displaying the Team's informative voluntary efforts.C. Highlighting the marine environment aesthetics.General Objectives:A. Team's website project and communicating the world.B. Media informative publications and printouts.C. Team's projects documentaries.D. Video and photographic photography project.3- Workshops and Maintenance Field:Aim:A. Team's operations required technical activities.
General Objectives:A. Technical workshops preparations project.B. Boats preparations project.C. Means of land transport and preparing land and sea transport project.D. Equipment preparations project.E. Diving, removing and lifting equipment.F. Equipment preparations project. 4- Equipment and Support Services Field:Aim:A. Providing all the Dive Team general activities’ support services.General Objectives:A. Financial and administrative services, as well as supportive preparations projects. Latest AchievementsAnnual Kuwait Dive Team's Achievements2003 2004 2005 2006 2007Achievements of 2003The Most Significant Achievements of Kuwait Dive Team During 2003:First: Environmental Field• Lifting Operations:o Removing two boats from the National Assembly coast which each weighed 3 tons and 21 feet in long.o Lifting 61 boats from Noqaat Al-Saqr weighing a total of 75 tons and each 19 to 21 feet in length.o Lifting a wooden ship from Noqaat Al-Saqr of 21 tons in weight and 50 feet long.o Lifting a downloading ship of 15 tons weight and 40 feet long.o Lifting a cruiser in Aowha Island of 5 tons weight and 30 feet long.o Lifting an eight ton boat carrier from Khiran Area.o Lifting a boat from Al-Shaab Sports Club weighing 2 tons and 25 feet long.o Lifting a wooden ship from Noqaat Al-Seif weighing 40 tons and 70 feet long.
• Operations Removing Fishing Nets Suspended in Coral Reefs:o Removing fishing nets from Kobar Island Coral Reefs with a total weight of one ton.o Removing fishing nets from Um Al-Maradem Island Coral Reefs.o Removing fishing nets from Bneida weighing half-a- ton.• Marine Moorings:o Maintaining 75 marine moorings.o Four moorings for Bneida Grand Coral Reef.o Installing three moorings.• Rescuing Sea Creatures:o Rescuing recently hatched sea turtles.o Rescuing creatures and live fish from nets stuck in Coral Reefs. • Concrete Protectorates:o Submerging 10 (small-size) concrete bulks of 5 tons each in the Bneida Area.o Submerge Dasman Bneida Gate Marquette of 1 ton.• Coastal Environment:o Removing 40 tons of asbestos from Al-Salam Coast.o Removing 20 tons of iron waste from Kobar Island Coral Reefs.Third: Scientific Fieldo Updating the Kuwait Dive Team’s Website.Fourth: Technical Fieldo Completing the workshops’ equipment and devices used in the Team’s operations.o Repairing, as well as maintaining the Dive Team’s ships and boats.Fifth: Documentation, Photography and Mediao Photographing Coral Reefs in Qaroh, Um Al-Maradem and Kobar Islands.o Holding many news conferences on the Dive Team’s objectives, aims and programmes.o Photographing and documenting all concrete reefs.o Producing various films about the Team’s operation and a film on Coral Reef life in Kuwait, plus displaying it on different national and world television channels.o Issuing versatile printouts on Jaber Al-Kuwait Reefs and the Dive Team’s Activities.o Assisting in issuance of the Dive Team’s operations and achievements for newspapers and scientific articles.o Television and radio interviews on the Dive Team’s Activities.Sixth: Training Fieldo Performing many Training Courses for the Team Members.o Holding many Marine Courses during the Dive Team’s operations in order to further develop its skills and efforts.Seventh: Public Activities Fieldo Participating in many symposia and lectures centred on environmental awareness and the Dive Team’s exerted efforts in protecting the marine environment.o Participating in equipping and preparing Kuwait Public Emergency Operations due to some Iraqi accidents.o Kuwaiti Petroleum Institution honouring party for the Dive Team.o Inauguration of Jaber Al-Kuwait Reefs with its international, environmental and cultural activities.o Kuwait Petroleum Company honouring party for the Environmental Protection Society.o Receiving support from His Highness, the Amir of Kuwait [may Allah protect him] and from the esteemed National Assembly.o Receiving support from the Mobile Telecommunications Company (MTC) for achieving a full-options 40-feet boat for the Team’s operation. [name later changed to Zain]
Achievements of 2004• January 2004o A lecture in Manqaf School for Girls on Jaber Reefs.o Removing Um Al-Maradem fishing nets with a weight of half-a-ton and 300 metres long with filming the dead turtle.o Initiating lifting a military boom in Yachts Club.o Removing Um Al-Maradem fishing nets with a total weight of half-a-ton from the reefs to the eastern south.• February 2004o A Lecture for Iraqi students on the Team was given at the Kuwait Ministry of Electricity.o Issuing the Kuwait Dive Team English Book.o Lifting the Shankoli Boat at Souq Sharq with a total weight of 3 tons and 31 feet long.• March 2004o 75 tons of dual concrete domes in Al-Khiran Protectorate. o Installing 6 buoys with navigational lights to the south of Um Al-Maradem Island. • April 2004o Abdullah Al-Kandari's lecture in Al-Asmaa Secondary School that was attended by Dr Al-Kheraibet and Emad Al-Rashed.o Installing 5 buoys at Al-Beniya Reefs.o Meeting with Dr Al-Saraawy regarding the Moorings Project, the necessity of supporting it and other projects as well. o Lecture of Abdullah Khalaf Al-Dehan in Al-Salmiya Area.o Visit paid by Captain Mohsen Al-Gohary and Khaled Al-Kandari to the Dive Team.o Installing the buoys of Swimming Federation in Marine Oasis. o Lecture of Ahmed Al-Beshr Al-Roomi Secondary School.o Boy Scouts Lecture in the Environmental Society’s building.o Replacing 3 buoys in Kobar Island.
• May 2004o Installing 9 buoys in Kobar Island.o Removing fishing nets in Kobar Island and installing 3 buoys to the south of the Island.o Meeting Sheikh Nawaf Al-Ahmed at the National Assembly.o Operation of removing fishing nets at Bneida with a total weight of half-a-ton.
• June 2004o Receiving five-thousand-Dinars donation from Sheikh Nawaf Al-Ahmed.o The Environmental Society hosted a party for honouring the marine operation teams and it was attended by Dr Rasheed Al-Hamad, Minister of Education.o Removing fishing nets at Um Al-Maradem, with a total weight of one ton, located to the eastern southern side.o Installing 2 buoys at Kobar Island.o Installing 13 buoys at Qaroh Island.• July 2004o Diving with CNN and the Eco Seas Company Officials in Al-Khiran Protectorate, for photographing and videoing.o Rescuing the turtle at Qaroh Island stuck in fishing net threads during night diving.o Initiating the radio recording of Seas Depths Episodes presented by Essam Al-Felaij. • August 2004 o Installing a reef at Kobar 3 with a total weight of 60 tons in the northern side.o Live radio interview for an hour-and-a-half on the Dive Team's championships and achievements.o TV interview with Mahound Ashkenani on the Team's work philosophy.o Travel of Ali Al-Hammad, Ali Al-Failakawy and Faisal Al-Harban to Sharm Al-Sheikh for under-water training.• September 2004 o MTC Ceremony of handing over the Environmental Amateur Cruiser at Souq Sharq.• December 2004 o Lifting a cruiser from Ras Al-Ardh with a total length of 24 feet.o Lecture in Mishref Secondary School for Girls on the Dive Team attended by Dr Musaed Al-Najjar.o Lifting a 25-feet boat at the Yacht Club.o Sending Jaber Al-Kuwait Reefs’ Report to His Highness the Amir, through His Excellency the Minister of Amiri Diwan Affairs and the Marine Moorings Memorandum to the Waqf Secretary General.o Issuing an Arabic version of the Kuwait Dive Team book.o Meeting with Sheikh Mishel Al-Ahmed regarding his appreciation of issuing the Dive Team’s book and requesting his support for talking to Sheikh Ahmed Al-Fahed regarding Reefs.
Achievements of 2005The Kuwait Dive Team with the Environmental Protection Society continued with help of its members in forwarding many projects and programmes that contributed effectively and distinctly in protecting, as well as rehabilitating the Kuwaiti marine environment. Herein, we shall briefly state the most significant operations achieved within the Team's objectives.
First: Environmental FieldLifting Operations:o Lifting 6 boats with a total weight of 14 tons from Noqaat Al-Seif, Sharq Area, in 27th February 2005.o Lifting a wooden ship from Noqaat Al-Seif with a total length of 80 feet and a total weight of 40 tons in 12th February 2005.o Lifting a boat near Aowha Island with a total length of 31 feet and 4 tons weight in 26th August 2005.o Lifting a boat in Al-Fahaheel Club with a total weight of 5 tons and 32 feet long on 2nd November 2005.Operations of Removing Waste and Fishing Nets stuck in Coral Reefs:o Removing fishing nets stuck in the Coral Reefs in Um Al-Maradem Island weighing a total of quarter a ton in 24th April 2005.o Removing fishing nets weighing a quarter of a ton in total, stuck in Coral Reefs at Kobar Island in 25th August 2005.o Removing fishing nets stuck in the Coral Reefs in Raas Al-Zour Island with a total weight of half-a-ton during September 2005.o Removing fishing nets stuck in the Coral Reefs in Geleaa Island with a total weight of half-a-ton during September 2005.o Lifting a glass board from the Yacht Club Marina at Khiran Park with a total length of 1 × 1 metre and 20 kilogrammes.o Performing many explorative checks at Coral Reefs to be assured that fishing nets are not present.
Marine Moorings in Coral Reefs Locations:o Installing 35 marine moorings in Um Al-Maradem, Qaroh, Kobar Islands, Qetaat Al-Beniya, Taylor, and Arefjan Coral Reefs.o Performing routine comprehensive maintenance for 25 marine moorings in Bneida, Um Deerah and Arefjan Coral Reefs.o Performing many explorative marine checks of Coral Reefs.Rescuing Marine Creatures:o Rescuing sea creatures and fish stuck in fishing nets at Coral Reefs.o Rescuing three turtles stuck within fishing nets in sea snares.Jaber Al-Kuwait Reefs:o Releasing five hundred fish seedlings including 250 Hamour and 250 Shaam.o Following-up the previously mentioned reefs and confirming the non-existence of passive influences.o Removing the growth of some reefs.o Performing checks in versatile locations to identify locations for installing new coral reefs.Coastal Environment:o Performing recurrent checks on the coasts to examine sunken particles and harmful waste in the marine coastal environment and taking the necessary steps for radical treatment.
Third: Scientific Fieldo Checking the Dive Team Website’s electronic mail (Email) and replying fully with information to answer enquiries, as well as requests for the Team and its environmental activities. Fourth: Technical Fieldo Completing workshop equipment and devices used in Operations.o Repairing and maintaining the Team's cruisers and boats.Fifth: Documentation, Photography and Media Fieldo Photographing Coral Reefs in Qaroh, Um Al-Maradem, Kobar Islands and Bneida Coral Reefs.o Photographing Jaber Al-Kuwait Reefs.o Documenting all the Dive Team's Operations and Achievements. o Participating in Television and Radio interviews on the Team's Activities and areas of awareness for maintaining marine environment. o Participating in different Exhibitions organized by many governmental and private institutions.o Participating in symposia and lectures presented by various educational organisations on the Dive Team's achievements.Sixth: Training Fieldo Performing Training Courses for Team Members.Seventh: Public Activities Field o Receiving many school, university and institute students in Kuwait Dive Team venue in Shuwaikh Port.Achievements of 2006The Kuwait Dive Team in the Environmental Protection Society continued with help of its members in forwarding many projects and programmes that contributed effectively and distinctly in protecting, as well as rehabilitating the Kuwaiti marine environment. Herein, we shall briefly state the most significant operations which were achieved within the Team's objectives.First: Environmental Field:1. Lifting Operations:o Lifting a boat from Souq Sharq Marina of 26.5 feet long and 4 tons in weight. o Floating two crafts to the north of Kuwait and this operation is considered one of the most important operations done by the Dive Team aiming at protecting the environment against pollutants especially in Jon Al-Kuwait Area.2. Operations of removing waste and fishing nets stuck in coral reefs:o Removing fishing nets stuck in the Coral Reefs in the southern area. o Removing fishing nets from the Coral Reefs in Taylor Rock (Um Al-Aish) that are four sea miles away, to the east of Kobar Island. o Common environmental operations with Coast Guard in which both performed major rescuing operations for the marine environment in Kobar Island coral reefs. o Removing stuck fishing nets in Um Al-Maradem Island with a total length of 600 metres and of a total weight of 3 tons.o Performing many explorative checks for Coral Reefs to be assured of nonexistence of fishing nets.o Kuwait Dive Team of Environmental Protection Society was capable of completing the second stage of lifting and removing huge fishing nets stuck in Coral Reefs to the east of Um Al-Maradem Island, to the depth of 30 feet.3. Marine Moorings in Coral Reefs Locations:o Performing many explorative checks of Coral Reefs locations.o The Kuwait Dive Team performed routine maintenance for the marine moorings near islands and Coral Reefs for the necessity of replacing some parts of moorings, as well as maintaining other parts for the safety of its users. 4. Rescuing Marine Creatures:o Kuwait Dive Team succeeded in rescuing sea creatures, living and dead fish plus coral rocks stuck at a depth of 10 metres.5. Coastal Environment:o Performing recurrent and routine checks for the coasts to examine submerged particles and harmful waste to the marine coastal environment and taking necessary steps for its radical treatment.
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