The Miracle of the Sun

The Miracle of the Sun

The Miracle of the Sun is an alleged miraculous event witnessed by as many as 100,000 people on 13 October 1917 in the Cova da Iria fields near Fátima, Portugal. Those in attendance had assembled to observe what the Portuguese secular newspapers had been ridiculing for months as the absurd claim of three shepherd children that a miracle was going to occur at high-noon in the Cova da Iria on October 13, 1917. [(De Marchi 1952a:130–131)]

According to many witness statements, after a downfall of rain, the dark clouds broke and the sun appeared as an opaque, spinning disk in the sky.(De Marchi 1952b:139–150)] It was said to be significantly less bright than normal, and cast multicolored lights across the landscape, the shadows on the landscape, the people, and the surrounding clouds. The sun was then reported to have careened towards the earth in a zigzag pattern, frightening some of those present who thought it meant the end of the world. [(De Marchi 1952b:143, 149)] Some witnesses reported that their previously wet clothes became "suddenly and completely dry." [(De Marchi 1952b:150)]

Estimates of the number of witnesses range from 30,000-40,000 by Avelino de Almeida, writing for the Portuguese newspaper "O Século", [(De Marchi 1952a)] to 100,000, estimated by Dr. Joseph Garrett, professor of natural sciences at the University of Coimbra, [(De Marchi 1952a:177)] both of whom were present that day. [(De Marchi 1952a:185–187)]

The miracle was attributed by believers to Our Lady of Fátima, an apparition of the Blessed Virgin Mary to three young shepherd children in 1917, as having been predicted by the three children on 13 July, [(De Marchi 1952b:74)] 19 August, [(De Marchi 1952b:107)] and 13 September [(De Marchi 1952b:118)] 1917. The children reported that the Lady had promised them that she would on 13 October reveal her identity to them [(De Marchi 1952b:46)] and provide a miracle "so that all may believe." [ (De Marchi 1952:118)]

According to these reports, the miracle of the sun lasted approximately ten minutes. [(De Marchi 1952b)] The three children also reported seeing a panorama of visions, including those of Jesus, the Blessed Virgin Mary, and of Saint Joseph blessing the people. [(De Marchi 1952b:151–166)]


The most widely-cited descriptions of the events reported at Fatima are taken from the writings of John De Marchi, an Italian Catholic priest and researcher. De Marchi spent seven years in Fátima, from 1943 to 1950, conducting original research and interviewing the principals at undisturbed length. [(De Marchi 1952b:10–12)] In "The Immaculate Heart", published in 1952, De Marchi reports that, " [t] heir ranks (those present on 13 October) included believers and non-believers, pious old ladies and scoffing young men. Hundreds, from these mixed categories, have given formal testimony. Reports do vary; impressions are in minor details confused, but none to our knowledge has directly denied the visible prodigy of the sun." [(De Marchi 1952b:143)]

Some of the witness statements follow below. They are taken from John De Marchi's several books on the matter.

*"Before the astonished eyes of the crowd, whose aspect was biblical as they stood bare-headed, eagerly searching the sky, the sun trembled, made sudden incredible movements outside all cosmic laws — the sun 'danced' according to the typical expression of the people." ― Avelino de Almeida,(De Marchi 1952b:144)] writing for "O Século" (Portugal's most widely-circulated [(De Marchi 1952a:174)] and influential newspaper, which was pro-government and anti-clerical at the time Almeida's previous articles had been to satirize the previously reported events at Fátima). [(De Marchi 1952a)]

* "The sun, at one moment surrounded with scarlet flame, at another aureoled in yellow and deep purple, seemed to be in an exceeding fast and whirling movement, at times appearing to be loosened from the sky and to be approaching the earth, strongly radiating heat." ― Dr. Domingos Pinto Coelho, writing for the newspaper "Ordem". [(De Marchi 1952b:147)]

* "…The silver sun, enveloped in the same gauzy grey light, was seen to whirl and turn in the circle of broken clouds… The light turned a beautiful blue, as if it had come through the stained-glass windows of a cathedral, and spread itself over the people who knelt with outstretched hands… people wept and prayed with uncovered heads, in the presence of a miracle they had awaited. The seconds seemed like hours, so vivid were they." ― Reporter for the Lisbon newspaper "O Dia". [(De Marchi 1952b:143)]

* "The sun's disc did not remain immobile. This was not the sparkling of a heavenly body, for it spun round on itself in a mad whirl, when suddenly a clamor was heard from all the people. The sun, whirling, seemed to loosen itself from the firmament and advance threateningly upon the earth as if to crush us with its huge fiery weight. The sensation during those moments was terrible." ― Dr. Almeida Garrett, Professor of Natural Sciences at Coimbra University.(De Marchi 1952b:146)]

* "As if like a bolt from the blue, the clouds were wrenched apart, and the sun at its zenith appeared in all its splendor. It began to revolve vertiginously on its axis, like the most magnificent firewheel that could be imagined, taking on all the colors of the rainbow and sending forth multi-colored flashes of light, producing the most astounding effect. This sublime and incomparable spectacle, which was repeated three distinct times, lasted for about ten minutes. The immense multitude, overcome by the evidence of such a tremendous prodigy, threw themselves on their knees." ― Dr. Formigão, a professor at the seminary at Santarem, and a priest.

* "I feel incapable of describing what I saw. I looked fixedly at the sun, which seemed pale and did not hurt my eyes. Looking like a ball of snow, revolving on itself, it suddenly seemed to come down in a zig-zag, menacing the earth. Terrified, I ran and hid myself among the people, who were weeping and expecting the end of the world at any moment." ― Rev. Joaquim Lourenço, describing his boyhood experience in Alburitel, eighteen kilometers from Fatima. [(De Marchi 1952b:149)]

* "On that day of October 13, 1917, without remembering the predictions of the children, I was enchanted by a remarkable spectacle in the sky of a kind I had never seen before. I saw it from this veranda…” ― Portuguese poet Afonso Lopes Vieira. [(De Marchi 1952b:148–9)]

Critical evaluation of the event

No scientific accounts exist of any unusual solar or astronomic activity during the time the sun was reported to have "danced", and there are no witness reports of any unusual solar phenomenon further than forty miles out from Cova da Iria. [(De Marchi 1952b:148–50, 282)]

De Marchi claims that the prediction of an unspecified "miracle", the abrupt beginning and end of the alleged miracle of the sun, the varied religious backgrounds of the observers, the sheer numbers of people present, and the lack of any known scientific causative factor make a mass hallucination unlikely.(De Marchi 1952b:150, 278–82)] That the activity of the sun was reported as visible by those up to 18 kilometers away, also precludes the theory of a collective hallucination or mass hysteria, according to De Marchi.

Pio Scatizzi, S.J. describes events of Fátima and concludes

The ... solar phenomena were not observed in any observatory. Impossible that they should escape notice of so many astronomers and indeed the other inhabitants of the hemisphere… there is no question of an astronomical or meteorological event phenomenon …Either all the observers in Fátima were collectively deceived and erred in their testimony, or we must suppose an extra-natural intervention.(De Marchi 1952b:282)]

Steuart Campbell, writing for the 1989 edition of "Journal of Meteorology", postulated that a cloud of stratospheric dust changed the appearance of the sun on 13 October, making it easy to look at, and causing it to appear yellow, blue, and violet and to spin. In support of his hypothesis, Mr. Campbell reports that a blue and reddened sun was reported in China as documented in 1983. ["Fátima's dusty veil", New Humanist, Vol 104 No 2, August 1989 and "The Miracle of the Sun at Fátima", Journal of Meteorology, UK, Vol 14, no. 142, October, 1989] Joe Nickell, a skeptic and investigator of paranormal phenomena, claims that the position of the phenomenon, as described by the various witnesses, is at the wrong azimuth and elevation to have been the sun. [Joe Nickell (1993) "Looking for a Miracle: Weeping Icons, Relics, Stigmata, Visions and Healing Cures" Prometheus, ISBN 0-87975-840-6] He suggests the cause may have been a sundog. Sometimes referred to as a parhelion or "mock sun", a sundog is a relatively common atmospheric optical phenomenon associated with the reflection/refraction of sunlight by the numerous small ice crystals that make up cirrus or cirrostratus clouds. A sundog is, however, a stationary phenomenon, and would not explain the reported appearance of the "dancing sun". Nickell suggests an explanation for this and other similar phenomena may lie in temporary retinal distortion, caused by staring at the intense light and/or by the effect of darting the eyes to and fro so as to avoid completely fixed gazing (thus combining image, afterimage and movement). Nickell concludes that there was

likely a combination of factors, including optical and meteorological phenomena (the sun being seen through thin clouds, causing it to appear as a silver disc; an alteration in the density of the passing clouds, so that the sun would alternatively brighten and dim, thus appearing to advance and recede; dust or moisture droplets in the atmosphere, imparting a variety of colors to sunlight; and/or other phenomena).

However, there are marked problems with the sundog theory because the meteorological conditions at the time of the Miracle of the Sun were not conducive to such an occurrence.Fact|date=June 2008 Sundogs occur in the presence of cirrus clouds, which are made out of ice, not water droplets. A sundog could have occurred prior to the rainstorm but not trailing the rainstorm, which is when the phenomenon occurred. A sundog would have to have occurred, at very least, hours prior to the storm, since cirrus clouds can precede a rainstorm by a few hours. The short and brief rain experienced before the sun event, on the other hand, indicates cumulonimbus clouds.Fact|date=June 2008

Not everyone reported seeing the sun "dance, including the children, who reported seeing Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and Saint Joseph blessing the people. Some people only saw the radiant colors. Others saw nothing at all. [ [ Basilica and Shrine of Our Lady of Fatima] ]

Paul Simons, in an article entitled "Weather Secrets of Miracle at Fátima", states that he believes it possible that some of the optical effects at Fatima may have been caused by a cloud of dust from the Sahara. ["Weather Secrets of Miracle at Fátima", Paul Simons, The Times, February 17, 2005.]

Kevin McClure claims that the crowd at Cova da Iria may have been expecting to see signs in the sun, as similar phenomena had been reported in the weeks leading up to the miracle. On this basis he believes that the crowd saw what it wanted to see. But it has been objected that McClure's account fails to explain similar reports of people miles away, who by their own testimony were not even thinking of the event at the time, or the sudden drying of people's sodden, rain-soaked clothes. Kevin McClure stated that he had never seen such a collection of contradictory accounts of a case in any of the research he had done in the previous ten years. [Kevin McClure (1983) "The Evidence for Visions of the Virgin Mary" Aquarian Press, ISBN 0-85030-351-6] Leo Madigan believes that the various witness reports of a miracle are accurate, however he alleges inconsistency of witnesses, and suggests that astonishment, fear, exaltation and imagination must have played roles in both the observing and the retelling. Madigan likens the experiences to prayer, and considers that the spiritual nature of the phenomenon explains what he describes as the inconsistency of the witnesses. [Leo Madigan (2003), "The Children of Fátima" Our Sunday Visitor Inc., ISBN 1-931709-57-2]

Author Lisa Schwebel claims that the event was a supernatural extra-sensory phenomenon. Schwebel notes that the solar phenomenon reported at Fátima is not unique - there have been several reported cases of high pitched religious gatherings culminating in the sudden and mysterious appearance of lights in the sky. [Lisa J Schwebel (2003) "Apparitions, Healings, and Weeping Madonnas: Christianity and the Paranormal" Paulist Press, ISBN 0-8091-4223-6 (see the [ American Manazine review] ).]

It has been argued that the Fátima phenomenon and many UFO sights share a common cause, [D Scott Rogo (1982) "Miracles" Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-27202-2] or even that the phenomenon was an alien craft. [cite web | url = | title = The Sheep Look Up | date = 2005-05-13 | work = Rigorous Intuition | accessdate = 2006-08-19]

Many years after the events in question, Stanley L. Jaki, a professor of physics at Seton Hall University, New Jersey, Benedictine priest and author of a number of books reconciling science and Catholicism, proposed a unique theory about the supposed miracle. Jaki believes that the event was natural and meteorological in nature, but that the fact the event occurred at the exact time predicted was a miracle. [Jaki, Stanley L. (1999). "God and the Sun at Fátima". Real View Books, ASIN B0006R7UJ6]

The event was officially accepted as a miracle by the Roman Catholic Church on 13 October 1930. On 13 October 1951, papal legate Cardinal Tedeschini told the million gathered at Fátima that on 30 October, 31 October, 1 November, and 8 November 1950, Pope Pius XII himself witnessed the miracle of the sun from the Vatican gardens. [Joseph Pelletier. (1983). "The Sun Danced at Fátima". Doubleday, New York. p. 147–151.]

ee also

* Our Lady of Fátima
* The Three Secrets of Fátima
* Marian apparition
* Miracle
* UFO sightings in Portugal
* Sundog



*cite book|first = John | last = De Marchi | year = 1956 | title = The True Story of Fátima | publisher = Catechetical Guild Educational Society | location = St. Paul Minnesota
*cite book|first = John | last = De Marchi | year = 1952b | title = The Immaculate Heart | publisher = Farrar, Straus and Young | location = New York

External links

* [ Pictures of the crowd from, "Fatima Portugal Our Lady of Fatima"]
* [ picture of the sun during the miracle.]
* [ "The True Story of Fatima" by John De Marchi]

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