Baraita (Aramaic ברייתא: "external", "outside"; pl. "Baraitot'(actually, 'Barayata')'. Also Baraitha, Beraita, Ashkenazi Beraisa) designates a tradition in the Jewish oral law not incorporated in the Mishnah. "Baraita" thus refers to teachings "outside" of the six orders of the Mishnah. Originally, "Baraita" probably referred to teachings from schools outside of the main Mishnaic-era academies - although in later collections, individual "Baraitot" are often authored by sages of the Mishna ("Tannaim").

Because the Mishnah encapsulates the entire Oral Law in a purposely compact form (designed to both facilitate "and" necessitate oral transmission), many variant versions, additional explanations, clarifications and rulings were not included in the Mishnah. These were later compiled in works called the "Baraitot" - often in the form of a list of teachings by one sage. "Baraita" can thus also designate collections of such traditions. The main collections of "Baraita" are the Tosefta, and the Halakhic Midrashim (Mekhilta, Sifra and Sifre).

The authority of the Baraita is somewhat less than that of the Mishnah. Nevertheless, these works are the basic "proof-text" cross-referenced by the Talmudic sages in their analysis and interpretation of the Mishna; See Gemara. Here, a teaching from the Baraita is usually introduced by the Aramaic word "Tanya" ("It was orally taught") or by "Tanu Rabanan" ("Our Rabbis have orally taught"), whereas "Tnan" ("We have orally taught") introduces quotations from the Mishnah. Anonymous "Baraitot" are often attributed to particular "Tannaim" by the Talmud. In the Jerusalem Talmud, references to "Baraitot" are less common.

The style of the "Baraita" is basically indistinguishable from that of the Mishna, but some come closer to Mishnaic idiom than others. For example, the second chapter of "Kallah Rabbathi", a "beraita" compilation, is often appended to Pirkei Avoth, as both are similar in style and content.

ee also

*Oral law
*Jerusalem Talmud
*Halakhic Midrash


* "Maimonides Introduction to the Mishneh Torah" ( [ English translation] )
* [ Tosefta and Baraita (Hebrew)] , "Maimonides Introduction to the Commentary on the Mishna"
* [ The Oral Tradition] , Aryeh Kaplan
* [ Baraita] ,
* [ What is a Beraita?] ,

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  • Baraita — Baraïta Littérature rabbinique Littérature de Hazal Mishna • Tossefta Guemara • Talmud Talmud de Jérusalem Talmud de Babylone Traités mineurs Baraïta Midrash Halakha Baraïta de Rabbi Ishmaël Mekhilt …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Baraïta — (judéo araméen ברייתא barayata, « extérieur » ; pl. baraïtot) est un terme générique désignant une tradition orale juive non incorporée dans la Mishna. Il peut s appliquer à un ensemble des « enseignements extérieurs »… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Baraita — (aramäisch ברייתא etwas, das außerhalb ist ; pl. Baraitot) bezeichnet eine Lehrmeinung aus tannaitischer Zeit, die jedoch keinen Eingang in die Mischna gefunden hat. Außerhalb bezieht sich dementsprechend auf außerhalb der Mischna . Ursprünglich… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • BARAITA, BARAITOT — (Aram. בָּרַיְתָא, pl. בָּרַיְתוֹת), Aramaic for the Hebrew word ḥiẓonah ( external ) and an abbreviated form of the phrase matnita baraita – external mishnah, i.e., a tannaitic tradition which is not included in the Mishnah of Rabbi judah ha… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Baraita on the Erection of the Tabernacle — is a Baraita cited several times by Hai Gaon, by Nathan ben Jehiel in the Aruk , as well as in Rashi, Yalḳut, and Maimonides. Rashi calls it a Mishnah . It treats in fourteen sections (in the Munich MS., sections i. and ii. constitute one… …   Wikipedia

  • BARAITA DE-MELEKHET HA-MISHKAN — (On the Building of the Tabernacle), ancient collection containing 14 chapters, giving a description of the building of the Tabernacle. The baraita is quoted by early authorities, including Hai Gaon, Rashi, the tosafists, and Naḥmanides, under… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • BARAITA OF 32 RULES — BARAITA OF 32 RULES, baraita giving 32 hermeneutic rules to be used in the aggadic interpretation of Scripture. Rashi makes frequent use of the Baraita of 32 Rules in his commentaries on the Bible and Talmud, referring to it by this name or as… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • BARAITA DE-NIDDAH — BARAITA DE NIDDAH, ancient work on ritual purity of sectarian character, already known in the early geonic period. It is mentioned in Sefer ha Mikẓa ot (cited in Aggur, sect. 1, Or Zaru a esct. 360), and in Naḥmanides commentary (Gen. 31:35), and …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Baraita on the Thirty-two Rules — The Baraita on the Thirty two Rules or Baraita of R. Eliezer ben Jose ha Gelili is a baraita giving the 32 hermeneutic rules according to which the Bible is interpreted. It is no longer extent except in references by later authorities. Abul Walid …   Wikipedia

  • Baraita of Samuel — A Baraita of Samuel (Hebrew: בריתא דרבי שמואל) was known to Jewish scholars from Shabbethai Donolo in the 10th century to Simon Duran in the 15th century, and citations from it were made by them. It was considered as lost until around 1900, when… …   Wikipedia

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