Name = PAGENAME
Caption = Ketonuria using
DiseasesDB = 29485
ICD10 = ICD10|R|82|4|r|80
ICD9 = ICD9|791.6
Ketonuria is a medical condition in which
ketone bodiesare present in the urine.
It is seen in conditions in which the body produces excess ketones as an alternative source of energy. It is seen during starvation or more commonly in type I
diabetes mellitus. Production of ketone bodies is a normal response to a shortage of glucose, meant to provide an alternate source of fuel from fatty acids. For instance, after 24 hours of fastingthe blood will have increased levels of ketone bodies (called ketonemiaor ketosis), but all of it will be used by the muscles and very little will remain to be excreted in urine.
Ketones are metabolic end-products of fatty acid
metabolism. In healthy individuals, ketones are formed in the liverand are completely metabolized so that only negligible amounts appear in the urine. However, when carbohydratesare unavailable or unable to be used as an energy source, fatbecomes the predominant body fuel instead of carbohydrates and excessive amounts of ketones are formed as a metabolic byproduct. Higher levels of ketones in the urine indicate that the body is using fat as the major source of energy.
Ketone bodies that commonly appear in the urine when fats are burned for energy are
acetoacetateand beta-hydroxybutyric acid. The gas acetoneis also produced, but is exhaled. Normally, the urine should not contain a noticeable concentration of ketones to give a positive reading. As with tests for glucose, acetone can be tested by a dipstick or by a tablet. The results are reported as small, moderate, or large amounts of acetone. A small amount of acetone is a value under 20mg/dl; a moderate amount is a value of 30-40mg/dl, and a finding of 80mg/dl or greater is reported as a large amount.
Screening for ketonuria is done frequently for acutely ill patients, presurgical patients, and pregnant women. Any diabetic patient who has elevated levels of blood and urine glucose should be tested for urinary ketones. In addition, when diabetic treatment is being switched from
insulinto oral hypoglycemic agents, the patient's urine should be monitored for ketonuria. The development of ketonuria within 24 hours after insulin withdrawal usually indicates a poor response to the oral hypoglycemic agents. Diabetic patients who use oral hypoglycemic agents should have their urine tested regularly for glucose and ketones because oral hypoglycemic agents, unlike insulin, do not control diabetes when an acute infection or other illness develops.
In conditions associated with acidosis, urinary ketones are tested to assess the severity of acidosis and to monitor treatment response. Urine ketones appear before there is any significant increase in blood ketones; therefore, urine ketone measurement is especially helpful in emergency situations. During pregnancy, early detection of ketonuria is essential because ketoacidosis is a factor associated with intrauterine death.
Causes of ketosis and ketonuria
* Metabolic abnormalities such as
diabetes, renal glycosuria, or glycogenstorage disease
* Dietary conditions such as
starvation, fasting, high protein, or low carbohydrate diets, prolonged vomiting, and anorexia
* Conditions in which metabolism is increased, such as
hyperthyroidism, fever, pregnancy or lactation
In nondiabetic persons, ketonuria may occur during acute illness or severe stress. Approximately 15% of hospitalized patients may have ketonuria, even though they do not have diabetes. In a diabetic patient, ketone bodies in the urine suggest that the patient is not adequately controlled and that adjustments of medication, diet, or both should be made promptly. In the nondiabetic patient, ketonuria reflects a reduced carbohydrate metabolism and excessive fat metabolism.
Bayer's brand name for test strips to measure the level of ketones in the urine. Other brands of ketone test strips are Uriscan and Atkins. A strip consists of a thin piece of plastic film slightly larger than a matchstick, with a reagent pad on one end that is either dipped into a urine sample or passed through the stream while the user is voiding. The pad is allowed to react for a short time, then its resulting color is compared to a graded shade chart indicating a detection range from negative presence of ketones up to a significant quantity.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=cm.chapter.4143 National Institute of Health (NIH) webpage on Ketonuria]
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