- John Church (priest)
The Reverend John Church (born
1780-circa 1835) was an Independent clergyman most famous for his involvement in the homosexualscandal of the Vere Street Coterie. He is often claimed as the first openly gayordained Christian minister in England. Contemporary rumours about this are unproveable one way or the other, though circumstantial evidence seems to suggest that his ‘inordinate affections which led me into error’ [His autobiography, "The foundling, or, The child of providence" (1823), page 159] can be equated with homosexual inclinations.
A foundling discovered as a toddler barely able to walk on the steps of St. John's Church
Clerkenwell(hence his first name) or St. Andrew's Church Holborn, his parents are unknown. He was sent to the Foundling Hospitaland spent his first six years in the care of a woman at Hadlow, near Tonbridge, Kent, before returning to the Hospital. There he remained (receiving a rudimentary education, including how to read but not how to write) until he was indentured at 10 to a carver and gilder in Great Portland Street. This was broken off after only 8 years due to a quarrel with the master but, though he complained of poverty during this time, he managed some self-education and acquired a small personal library.
He then moved from job to job, on 22 March 1801 marrying the daughter of a Mr Elliott of Hampshire at the (
Swedenborgian) New Church in the Strand (having probably been introduced to Swedenborgianism by his first employer, despite claiming to have regularly attended Anglican services during his apprenticeship). Becoming more openly an evangelical dissenter, from about 1801 he attended Itinerant Societymeetings, a few years later began to preach publicly and organise a Sunday school, and in 1807 was baptised into the Grafton Street congregation under the ministry of the Revd Burnham. Tried and approved as a preacher there, he began to admire William Huntington's high Calvinism(though it is unclear that this led, as his detractors claimed, to his practicing Huntingdon's ‘practical antinomianism’ or showing wanton disregard for accepted Christian morality).
He almost immediately accepted a permanent appointment at an Independent chapel at
Banbury, Oxfordshire, being ordained on 15 September 1807 before a group of Baptist and Independent ministers, but had this office curtailed the following year as a result of rumours that he was sodomizing young men in the congregation. He moved back to London, to the Grub Streetcongregation but, despite admitting that he had acted ‘imprudently’ [Church, page 74.] , refused to submit to their investigation of these allegations and moved onto to many and various other short-term preaching appointments before joining the Obelisk Chapel, St George's Fieldsas its regular minister.
In the course of
1813rumours began to spread in the Weekly Dispatchand up to perhaps 20,000 other pamphlets and broadsides connecting Church with the White Swan (a well-known homosexual brothel or 'gay bar' in modern parlance, in Vere Street, Clare Market), saying that he was its chaplain and performed mock marriage ceremonies (recognised by some modern historians as same sex marriages) for its male customers. Church denied this connection with Vere Street, claiming that it was propaganda by his clerical opponents and successfully taking legal action to prevent the Dispatch from publishing further reports. Attempted prosecutions against him for sodomy failed and his following did not decline - indeed, in 1814 (shortly before the death of his first wife - she had borne him 4 children) he founded a new chapel, later known as the Obelisk Tabernacle, designed to accommodate larger numbers. He remarried not long afterwards to a wife of unknown name (though she is thought to have been the proprietor of a ladies' seminary at Hammersmith).
In 1816 Church states that he dreamed of seeing a number of scorpions crawling about the floor of his chapel and being able to kill all but two of them "which fled to the very seat that was occupied by ******* and another" [Church, page 121] . Soon afterwards, on 26 September, he was indicted at the
Surreyassizes, Croydon, for attempted sodomy. His accuser was Adam Foreman, a 19 year old apprentice potter in his congregation who alleged that Church had entered his room one night, placed a hand upon his genitals, and feigned his mistress's voice, upon which Foreman claimed to have fled. The trial was a cause-celebre, lasting to 17 August the following year and returning a guilty verdict and sentencing Church to two years' imprisonment. Upon the verdict, Church was burned in effigy by a large and violent crowd outside the Obelisk Tabernacle, but during the 730 days he served of his sentence (at Newington and Horsemonger Lane gaols, often in great anguish according to his autobiography) he received many visitors, had access to books, retained many of his followers (especially women) and had his four children cared for. He soon recommenced regular services on release, including preaching to more than 1000 people on the evening of his release.
Though his correspondence survives, he did not incur further controversy and nothing more is known of him after 1826 (the date of his last published sermon), when he disappears from the public record - his date of death is unknown.
*A number of sermons.
*Autobiography, in which he represented himself as ‘a child of providence’, a latter-day Moses with a life marked by divinely appointed trials and triumphs.
* [http://famous.adoption.com/famous/index-exile-or-persecution-religious-political-or-social.html Famous adoptees]
*R. Norton, "Mother Clap's molly house: the gay subculture in England, 1700–1830" (1992)
*Anon, "The trial and conviction of John Church … for an assault with intent to commit an unnatural crime" (1817)
*Anon, "The infamous life of John Church, the St George's Fields preacher" (1817)
*I. McCalman, "Radical underworld: prophets, revolutionaries, and pornographers in London, 1795–1840" (1988)
*W. Benbow, "The crimes of the clergy" (1823) - an ultra-radical anti-clericalist pamphlet
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