Rolf Jacobsen

Rolf Jacobsen

Rolf Jacobsen (March 8, 1907—1994) could be said to be the first modernist writer in Norway. Jacobsen's career as a writer spanned more than fifty years. He is one of Scandinavia’s most distinguished poets, who launched poetic modernism in Norway with his first book, "Jord og jern" (Earth and Iron) in 1933. Jacobsen's work has been translated into over twenty languages. The central theme in his work is the balance between nature and technology - he was called "the Green Poet" in Norwegian literature.


Rolf Jacobsen was born in Oslo (then called Kristiania), as the son of Martin Julius Jacobsen, who had completed both medical and dental school, and Marie (Nielsen) Jacobsen, a nurse. At the age of six he moved with his family to Asnes, where Martin Jacobsen had obtained a post as a school dentist. Rolf was educated by his mother, who had completed one year of teacher's training. In 1920 he moved to Oslo and entered a private school. During these years his uncle, who was a railway engineer, looked after him. Jacobson continued his studies at the University of Oslo for five years without graduating. In 1927 he served in the Norwegian army for six weeks.

Early career

Jacobsen's "Jord og jern" ("Earth and Iron"), written in free verse, introduced the urban world, racing cars, airplanes, and electrical turbines. Because of the choice of his subjects Jacobsen's work was connected to Marinetti and Futurism, but his view was all but romantic. He did not share the Futurists' euphoria over modern inventions, the beauty of "a roaring motorcar, which runs like a machine-gun," but saw the relationship between machines and human civilization as more complex. Jacobsen's diverse literary and other artistic influences included the Poetic Edda, Karel Čapek's play "R.U.R.", and Carl Sandburg's poetry. The title of the collection also suggests a cyclic relationship between nature and technology.

In 1934 Jacobsen returned to Asnes to take care of his father. He had joined a socialist intellectual group, Clarté, and in Asnes he became a member of the Labor Party Leadership for Hedmark County. In Asnes Jacobsen worked for the daily newspaper "Kongsvinder Arbeiderblad", which was supported by Labor. Jacobsen's second collection of poems, "Vrimmel" (1935), revealed his underlying dismay at modern civilization. Jacobsen rejected Marinetti's manifesto, "We wish to glory war...", but predicted the ominous emergence of the gas masks and machine guns. After "Vrimmel", Jacobsen was silent as a poet for 16 years.

In 1940 Jacobsen married Petra Tendø; they had two sons. While his parents' marriage did not succeed, Jacobsen's own marriage was harmonious. His wife died in 1985 and in his last book, "Nattapent" (1995), Jacobsen published tender and mournful poems about their life together: "Whoever loves for years / hasn't lived in vain."

The Second World War

World War II was a dark period in Jacobsen's life. Norway was invaded by Germany in 1940. Vidkun Quisling, who had close ties with German Nazi leaders, was appointed prime minister by the Germans. Norwegian population remained firmly anti-Nazi. Quisling was later executed for high treason. During the war Jacobsen signed and published, in "Kongsvinger Arbeiderblad", editorials that supported the German occupiers. He was also a member of the Norwegian National Socialist Party. It is probably true that Jacobsen never accepted the cult of the Führer or the Holocaust. When Norway was again free from Nazis, Jacobsen was convicted of treason and sentenced to three and a half years at hard labor. Other authors were also convicted — the Nobel-winning writer Knut Hamsun was arrested for some time, and transferred to a psychiatric clinic in Oslo.

After the war and hardships, Jacobsen settled in Hamar, a city about 60 miles north of Oslo. He worked as a bookseller for ten years, and then as a journalist and night editor for the newspaper "Hamar Stifstidende". In 1950 he converted to Catholicism, and in 1951, Jacobsen published his third collection of poems, "Fjertog". The poems were traditional in form. In this work and in "Hemmelig liv" (1954), Jacobsen expressed his troubled compassion for the world around him. A new theme was the rough and lonely Norwegian scenery.

Later years

Jacobsen often expressed ironically his doubts about technology, and praised the blessings of little joys. Sometimes he used humor, sometimes his poems had hymnlike solemnity. In Hamar, Jacobsen lived in an old wooden house near Lake Mjøsa and the railroad. These surroundings he also described in his poems. Jacobsen's later books include "Pass for dørene - dørene lukkes" (1972), "Pusteøvelse" (1975), and "Tenk på noe annet" (1979).

Jacobsen died on February 20, 1994.


In the course of his long career, Jacobsen received many honors, among them membership in the Norwegian Academy of Language and Literature, the Norwegian Critics Prize for Literature (1960), the Doubloug Prize (1968), and the Grand Nordic Prize (1989) from the Swedish Academy.


*"Jord og jern" ('Earth and Iron') – poetry (1933)
*"Vrimmel" ('Swarm') – poetry (1935)
*"Fjerntog" (Express Train) – poetry (1951)
*"Hemmelig liv ('Secret Life')" – poetry (1954)
*"Sommeren i gresset" ('Summer in the Grass') – poetry (1956)
*"Brev til lyset" ('Letter to the Light') – poetry (1960)
*"Stillheten efterpå" ('The Silence Afterwards') – poetry (1965)
*"Headlines" – poetry (1969)
*"Pass for dørene - dørene lukkes" ('Watch the Doors - The Doors are Closing') – poetry (1972)
*"Pusteøvelse" ('Breathing exercise') – poetry (1975)
*"Den ensomme veranda" ('The Lonely Veranda') – poetry (1977)
*"Tenk på noe annet" ('Think About Something Else') – poetry (1979)
*"Liv laga" – poetry (1982)
*"Nattåpent" ('Night Watch') – poetry (1985)
*"Alle mine dikt" ('All My Poems') – poetry (1990)
*"En liten kvast med tusenfryd og fire rare løk: ukjente dikt og tekster 1925-1993" – poetry (1996)
*"Samlede dikt" ('Collected Poems') – collected works (1999)

Prizes and awards

*Norwegian Critics Prize for Literature 1960, for "Brev til lyset"
*Riksmålsforbundets litteraturpris 1965
*Dobloug Prize 1968
*Sarpsborgprisen 1969
*Aschehougprisen 1986
*Hedmark fylkeskommunes kulturpris 1990

External links

* [ Aftenposten]
* [ The friends of Rolf Jacobsen]

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