- Pentagon Papers
The "Pentagon Papers" is the popular name for a 14,000-page top-secret United States government report about the history of the Government's internal planning and policy concerning the
The "Pentagon Papers" true title is "United States–Vietnam Relations, 1945–1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense", a 47-volume, 7,000-page, top-secret Department of Defense history of the United States' politico-military involvement in the war in Vietnam, from 1945 to 1967.
U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamaracommissioned the study in 1967, and appointed Leslie Gelb(Pentagon international security affairs policy planning-arms control director) as study supervisor. Gelb hired 36 military officers, civilian policy experts, and historians to write the study's monographs. The "Pentagon Papers" included 4,000 pages of actual documents from the 1945–67 period.
Daniel Ellsberggave most of the Pentagon Papers to " New York Times" reporter Neil Sheehan, with Ellsberg's friend Anthony Russo assisting in their copying. The NYT began publishing excerpts as an article-series on June 13, 1971. [cite web|title=INTRODUCTION TO THE COURT OPINION ON THE NEW YORK TIMES CO. V. UNITED STATES CASE|url=http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/democrac/48.htm| accessdate = 2005-12-05] Political controversy and lawsuits followed; on June 29, U.S. Senator Mike Gravel(then Democrat, Alaska) entered 4,100 pages of the Papers to the record of his Subcommittee on Public Buildings and Grounds. These portions of the Papers were subsequently published by Beacon Press, the publishing arm of the Unitarian Universalist Associationof Congregations. [cite web|title="The Pentagon Papers", Senator Mike Gravel edition, Beacon Press|url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/248181?tab=editions]
The importance of recording the Papers to the "
Congressional Record" was that, Article I, Section 6 of the United States Constitutionprovides that "for any Speech or Debate in either House, [a Senator or Representative] shall not be questioned in any other Place", thus the Senator could not be prosecuted for anything said on the Senate floor, and, by extension, for anything entered to the "Congressional Record", allowing the Papers to be publicly read without threat of a treasontrial and conviction.
Later, Ellsberg said the documents "demonstrated unconstitutional behavior by a succession of presidents, the violation of their oath and the violation of the oath of every one of their subordinates", and that he had leaked the papers in the hopes of getting the nation out of "a wrongful war." [http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=07/07/02/1331255]
Impact of the 'Pentagon Papers'
The Pentagon Papers revealed many things, among them, that the US deliberately expanded its war with airstrikes against
Laos, coastal raids of North Vietnam, and U.S. Marine Corps attacks — before President Lyndon B. Johnsoninformed the American public, though promising to not expand the war. The revelations widened the credibility gapbetween the U.S. government and the American people, hurting the Nixon administration's war effort. Anthony Lewiscomments in the law course taught by James Goodale(ex-NYT-house-counsel), "Old Media, New Media", that the "NYT" was legally advised to not publish. Goodale counselled otherwise: the press had a First Amendment right to publish information significant to the people's understanding of their government's policy. Yet, President Richard Nixonargued that Ellsberg and Russo were guilty of felonytreason (per the Espionage Act of 1917), because they had no authority to publish classified documents.
A credibility gap of which the "NYT" wrote was that a consensus to bomb
North Vietnamhad developed in the Johnson administration on September 7, 1964, before the U.S. presidential elections, [ Edward Jay Epstein, "Between Fact and Fiction" (New York: Vintage, 1975) p. 82] however, per the Papers, none of the consensus actions recommended on September 7 involved bombing North Vietnam. [http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pentagon3/pent4.htm Mtholyoke] .] On June 14 1971, the "NYT" said the Johnson administration began last plans for the bombing in November.
Another controversy was that President Johnson sent combat troops to Vietnam by
July 17, 1965, after pretending to consult his advisors on July 21– July 27, per the cable stating that " Deputy Secretary of Defense Cyrus Vanceinforms McNamara that President had approved 34 Battalion Plan and will try to push through reserve call-up." [http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pentagon4/pent6.htm Mtholyoke] .] In 1988, when that cable was declassified, it revealed: "there was a continuing uncertainty as to [Johnson's] final decision, which would have to await Secretary McNamara's recommendation and the views of Congressional leaders, particularly the views of Senator [Richard Russell, Jr.| [Richard] Russell] ." [John Burke and Fred Greenstein, "How Presidents Test Reality: Decisions on Vietnam, 1954 and 1965" (1989) p. 215 n. 30.]
U.S. Government's reaction
The "New York Times"' publication of the Pentagon Papers article-series angered President Nixon; he told National Security Advisor
Henry Kissinger: "people have gotta be put to the torch for this sort of thing ... " and "let's get the son-of-a-bitch in jail." [cite web|title=The Pentagon Papers Case|url=http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB48/nixon.html| accessdate = 2005-12-05] After failing to persuade the "NYT" to voluntarily cease publication, U.S. Attorney General John N. Mitchelland President Nixon obtained a federal court injunction forcing the "NYT" to cease publication. The newspaper appealed the injunction, and the case quickly rose through the U.S. legal system to the Supreme Court.
June 18, 1971, the " Washington Post" began publishing its own series of articles based upon the Pentagon Papers; Ellsberg gave portions to editor Ben Bagdikian. That day, Assistant U.S. Attorney General William Rehnquistasked the "Washington Post" to cease publication; they refused; Rehnquist sought an injunction; the U.S. district court refused him; the Government appealed the refusal.
June 26, the Supreme Court agreed to hear both cases, consolidating to the ' New York Times Co. v. United States' (403 US 713). [cite web|title=New York Times Co. v. United States, 403 U.S. 713 (1971)|url=http://supct.law.cornell.edu/supct/cases/403us713.htm| accessdate = 2005-12-05] On June 30, 1971, the U.S. Supreme Court decided, 6–3, that the injunctions were unconstitutional prior restraintand that the Government failed to meet the heavy burden of proofrequired for prior restraint injunction. The nine justices wrote nine opinions disagreeing on significant, substantive matters; while generally a victory for First Amendment free speech absolutists, others felt it a mild legal victory of little protection for publishers against national securityclaims to prior restraint of publishing.
Thomas Tedford and Dale Herbeck summary of the editorial and publishing reaction of the time:
*"The Pentagon Papers" (2003) is a historical film directed by
Rod Holcombabout the Pentagon Papers and Daniel Ellsberg's involvement in their publication. The movie represents Ellsberg's life starting with his work for RAND Corp and ending with the day on which the judge declared his espionage trial a mistrial.
*Neil Sheehan (1971). "The Pentagon Papers".
New York: Bantam Books. As published in "The New York Times". ISBN 0-552-64917-1.
*_____ (1971–1972). "The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of United States Decisionmaking on Vietnam". Boston: Beacon Press. 5 vols. "Senator Gravel Edition"; includes documents not included in government version. ISBN 0-8070-0526-6 & ISBN 0-8070-0522-3.
Daniel Ellsberg(2002). "Secrets: A Memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon Papers". New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-03030-9
*George C. Herring, ed. (1993). "The Pentagon Papers: Abridged Edition". New York:
McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-028380-X.
*George C. Herring, ed. (1983). "Secret Diplomacy of the Vietnam War: The Negotiating Volumes of the Pentagon Papers".
* [http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pentagon/pent1.html Complete text of the Gravel Edition of the Pentagon Papers] with supporting documents, maps, and photos
* [http://www.topsecretplay.org "Top Secret: Battle for the Pentagon Papers" ] a resource site that supports a currently-playing docu-drama about the Pentagon Papers. The site provides historical context, time lines, bibliographical resources, information on discussions with current journalists, and helpful links.
* [http://www.ellsberg.net Official website for "Secrets: A Memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon Papers"] by
Democracy Now!" Special: [http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=07/07/02/1331255 "How the Pentagon Papers Came to Be Published by the Beacon Press":] Mike Graveland Daniel Ellsberg(audio/video and transcript)
* [http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB48/supreme.html Nixon Tapes & Supreme Court Oral Arguments]
* [http://nytimes.whsites.net/talk/podcasts.html Podcast of a live panel discussion moderated by Jill Abramson, New York Times managing editor and former Washington bureau chief, marking the 35th anniversary of the Supreme Court ruling.]
* [http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/FacultyPages/EdMoise/pentagon.html Article at Ed Moise's Vietnam Bibliography]
* [http://www.wcbs880.com/topic/play_window.php?audioType=Episode&audioId=851936 1971 - The Pentagon Papers] A report from Steve Holt of WCBS Newsradio 880 (WCBS-AM New York) Part of WCBS 880's celebration of 40 years of newsradio.
* [http://www.beacon.org/client/pentagonpapers.cfm Beacon Press & "The Pentagon Papers"]
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