Archival science

Archival science

Archival science is the theory and study of the safe storage, cataloguing and retrieval of documents and items. [cite web |url=|title=A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology|accessdate=2007-04-03 |publisher= [ Society of American Archivists] ] Emerging from diplomatics, [cite journal |last=Duranti |first=Luciana |coauthors=Heather MacNeil |year=1996 |month=Jan |title=The Protection of the Integrity of Electronic Records: An Overview of the UBC-MAS Research Project |journal=Archivaria |volume=1 |issue=42 |pages=46–67 |url= | accessdate=2007-02-16] the discipline also is concerned with the circumstances (context) under which the information or item was, and is used as evidence and memory of historical facts and acts. Archival Science also encompasses the study of past efforts to preserve documents and items, remediation of those techniques in cases where those efforts have failed, and the development of new processes that avoid the pitfalls of previous (and failed) techniques. The field also includes the study of traditional and electronic catalogue storage methods, digital preservation and the long range impact of all types of storage programs. [cite web |url=|title=The Archival Paradigm—The Genesis and Rationales of Archival Principles and Practices|accessdate=2007-04-03 |publisher=Council on Library and Information Resources [] ]

Traditionally, archival science has involved time honored methods for preserving items and information in climate controlled storage facilities. This technique involved both the cataloguing and accession of items into a collection archive, their retrieval and safe handling. However, the advent of digital documents and items, along with the development of electronic databases has caused the field to revaluate the means by which it not only accounts for items, but also how it maintains and accesses both information on items and the items themselves. [cite web |url=|title=Forward to Standards for Archival Description: A Handbook|accessdate=2007-04-03 |publisher= [ Society of American Archivists] ]

While generally associated with museums and libraries, the field also can pertain to individuals who maintain private collections (item or topic specific) or to the average person who seeks to properly care for, and either stop or slow down the deterioration of their family heirlooms and keepsakes.

Archival Science and course work pertaining to archival techniques as a course of study is taught in colleges and universities, usually under the umbrella of Information science or paired with a History program.

Professional organizations, such as the Society of American Archivists (SAA), also exist to act to further the study and professional development of the field. In 2002 SAA published Guidelines for a Graduate Program in Archival Studies, [cite web|url=|title=Guidelines for a Graduate Program in Archival Studies |accessdate=2007-04-03 |publisher= [ Society of American Archivists] ] but these guidelines have not been adopted by the majority of programs providing degrees for those entering the archives field. As a result, practitioners of archival science may come from a varied background of library, history, or museum studies programs, and there is little uniformity in the education of new archivists entering the job market.

ome Colleges and universities teaching archival science

* [ Simmons College, Graduate School of Library and Information Science]
* [ UCLA, Graduate School of Education and Information Studies]
* [ University of Michigan, School of Information]
* [ University of Pittsburgh, School of Information Sciences]
* [ University of British Columbia]
* [ University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Information and Library Science]
* [ University College Dublin, School of History and Archives]
* [ Humanities Advanced Technology and Information Institute (HATII) University of Glasgow]
* [ Graduate School of Library and Information Studies (GSLIS) McGill University]
* [ École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information Université de Montréal]
* [ Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, New York University]
* [ MA in Film Studies: Archive Option, University of East Anglia]
* [ École nationale des chartes, Paris]
* [ Arquivologia - Uel - Universidade estadual de Londrina - Brazil]
* [ Universidade de Brasília]
* [ Instituto de Ciência da Informação (Information Science Institute) of Universidade Federal da Bahia (Brazil)]
* [ Universidad de Córdoba - Argentina]
* [ Universidad de La Salle, Facultad de Sistemas de Información y Documentación - Colombia]
* [ Universidade do Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil]
* [ Universidad Carlos III de Madrid]
* [ Università di Roma La Sapienza]
* [ Escuela nacional de biblioteconomía y archivonomía de Mexico]
* [ Universidad central de Venezuela]
* [ Vatican School of Paleography, Diplomatics and Archives administration] , while not a university, grants certificates to advanced students in archives management
* [ University of Oslo]
* [ Mid Sweden University]


* [ List of textbooks being used in archival, LIS, and related Courses] . A comparative tool for curriculum development. Subject area categorization. Includes links to existing book reviews and offers the opportunity to contribute new reviews.

* [ E-books] - Online full-text books for students of archival science and librarianship

Terminology Guides

* [ Online Archival Terminology and Study Guide]

Biographies of Important Archivists

* [ Online Biographical Dictionary]


ee also

* Archival appraisal
* Archive
* Archivist
* Encoded Archival Description
* Manuscript processing
* Media preservation
* Preservation (library and archival science)

External links

* [ Archives & Records Management Resources]
* [ Colegio Colombiano de Archivistas - CCA (Colombian College of Archivists - CCA)]
* [ Directory of Regional, State and Local Archival Organizations in the United States]
* [ The Academy of Certified Archivists]
* [ The Internet Archive]
* [ The Society of American Archivists]

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