- Willie Wagtail
name = Willie Wagtail
image_width = 250px
image_caption = Willie Wagtail
Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne
status = LC
status_system = iucn3.1
status_ref = [IUCN2006|assessors=BirdLife International|year=2004|id=51329|title=Rhipidura leucophrys|downloaded=12 May 2006 ]
phylum = Chordata
classis = Aves
genus = "Rhipidura"
species = "R. leucophrys"
binomial = "Rhipidura leucophrys"
binomial_authority = Latham, 1802
range_map_caption=Willie Wagtail range
subdivision="R. l. leucophrys"
"R. l. melaleuca"
"R. l. picata"
The Willie (or Willy) Wagtail ("Rhipidura leucophrys") is a
passerine birdnative to Australia, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, the Bismarck Archipelago, and eastern Indonesia. It is a common and familiar bird throughout much of its range, living in most habitats apart from thick forest. Measuring 19.0–21.5 cm (7½–8½ in) in length, the Willie Wagtail is contrastingly coloured with almost entirely black upperparts and white underparts; the male and female have similar plumage. Three subspecies are recognised; "leucophrys" from central and southern Australia, the smaller "picata" from northern Australia, and the larger "melaleuca" from New Guinea and islands in its vicinity. It is unrelated to the true wagtails of the genus " Motacilla"; it is a member of the fantail genus " Rhipidura" and is a part of a 'core corvine' group that includes true crows and ravens, drongos and birds of paradise. Within this group, fantails are placed in the family Dicruridae, although some authorities consider them distinct enough to warrant their own small family Rhipiduridae.
The Willie Wagtail is insectivorous and spends much time chasing prey in open habitat. Its common name is derived from its habit of wagging its tail horizontally when foraging on the ground. Aggressive and territorial, the Willie Wagtail will often harass much larger birds such as the
Laughing Kookaburraand Wedge-tailed Eagle. It has responded well to human alteration of the landscape and is a common sight in urban lawns, parks, and gardens. It was widely featured in aboriginal folklorearound the country as either a bringer of bad news or a stealer of secrets.
The Willie Wagtail was first described by ornithologist John Latham in 1801 as "
Turdusleucophrys". [cite book |title=Supplementum Indicis Ornithologici, sive Systematis Ornithologiae |author=Latham J |year=1802 |publisher=G. Leigh, J. & S. Sotheby |location=London |isbn= |pages=p. xlv] Its specific epithet is derived from the Ancient Greekwords "leukos" "white" and "ǒphrys" "eyebrow".cite book | author = Liddell, Henry George and Robert Scott | year = 1980 | title = A Greek-English Lexicon(Abridged Edition) | publisher = Oxford University Press| location = United Kingdom | isbn =0-19-910207-4] Other early scientific names include " Muscicapatricolor" by Vieillot, [fr iconcite book |title=Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle, appliquée aux arts, principalement à l'Agriculture, à l'Écomomie rurale et domestique, à la Médecine, etc. Par une société de naturalistes et d'agriculteurs. Nouvelle Édition Vol. 26 |author=Vieillot LP|year=1818 |publisher=Déterville |location=Paris|pages=p. 490 ] and "Rhipidura motacilloides" by naturalists Nicholas Aylward Vigorsand Thomas Horsfieldin 1827, who erected the genus "Rhipidura". [cite journal |author=Vigors NA, Horsfield T |year=1827|title=A description of the Australian birds in the collection of the Linnean Society; with an attempt at arranging them according to their natural affinities |journal=Transactions of the Linnean Society of London |volume=15 |pages=pp. 170–331] The generic term is derived from the Ancient Greek "rhipis" "fan" and "oura" "tail". John Gouldand other early writers referred to the species as the Black-and-white Fantail, although did note the current name. However, "Willie Wagtail" rapidly became widely accepted sometime after 1916. 'Wagtail' is derived from its active behaviour, while the origins of 'Willie' are obscure.Boles, p. 381] The name had been in use colloquially for the Pied subspecies of the White Wagtail("Motacilla alba") on the Isle of Man, [cite book |title=A Vocabulary of the Anglo-Manx Dialect |author=Moore AW, Morrison S, Goodwin E |year=1924 |publisher=Oxford University Press |location=London|url=http://www.isle-of-man.com/manxnotebook/fulltext/am1924/pt_w.htm] and Northern Ireland. [cite book |title=A Concise Ulster Dictionary|author=McAfee CI |year=1996 |publisher=Oxford University Press |location=London |isbn=0198631324]
Other vernacular names applied include Shepherd's Companion (because it accompanied
livestock), Frogbird, Morning Bird, and Australian Nightingale.Boles, p. 387] Many aboriginal names are onomatopoeic, based on the sound of its scolding call.Boles, p. 382] "Djididjidi" is a name from the Kimberley,cite book |title=Gadi Mirrabooka: Australian Aboriginal Tales from the Dreaming |author=McKay HF, McLeod PE, Jones FF, Barker JE |year=2001 |publisher=Libraries Unlimited |isbn=1563089238 |pages=p. 100 ] and "Djigirridjdjigirridj" is used by the Gunwingguof western Arnhem Land.cite book |title=Birds of Australia`s Top End |last=Goodfellow |first=Denise Lawungkurr |coauthors= Stott, Michael |year=2001 |publisher=Scrubfowl Press |location=Parap, Northern Territory |isbn= 0957884907 |pages=p. 122] In Central Australia, southwest of Alice Springs, the Pitjantjatjara word is "tjintir-tjintir(pa)". [cite book |author=Cliff Goddard|title= Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara To English Dictionary |year=1992 |edition=2nd edition |pages=p. 151|publisher=Institute for Aboriginal Development |location=Alice Springs |isbn= 0-949659-64-9] Among the Kamilaroi, it is "thirrithirri". [cite web |url=http://coombs.anu.edu.au/WWWVLPages/AborigPages/LANG/GAMDICT/GAM_TWY.HTM |title=Kamilaroi/Gamilaraay Dictionary : T-Y |accessdate=2008-06-29 |author=Austin P, Nathan D|year=1998 |work=The Coombsweb: Kamilaroi/Gamilaraay Dictionary |publisher=Australian National University]
The Willie Wagtail is unrelated to the
Eurasian wagtails of the family Motacillidae. It is a member of the fantailgenus " Rhipidura"; some authorities classify this group of birds as a subfamily Rhipidurinae within the drongo family Dicruridae, together with the monarch flycatchers,cite book |title=The Taxonomy and Species of Birds of Australia and its Territories|author=Christidis, Les, and Walter E. Boles |year=1994 |publisher= Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union |location=East Hawthorne, Vic. |isbn= 978-1875122066] while others consider them distinct enough to warrant their own family Rhipiduridae.cite book |title=Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds|author=Christidis, Les, and Walter E. Boles |year=2008 |publisher=CSIRO |location=Canberra |isbn=978-0643065116 |pages=p. 174] Early molecular research in the late 1980s and early 1990s revealed that the fantails belong to a large group of mainly Australasian birds known as the Corvida parvordercomprising many tropical and Australian passerines. [Cite book|last= Sibley |first= Charles |authorlink= Charles Sibley |coauthors= Jon Edward Ahlquist |year= 1990 |title= Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular Evolution |publisher= Yale University Press |location= New Haven |isbn= 978-0300040852 ] More recently, the grouping has been refined somewhat and the fantails have been classified in a 'core corvine' group with the crows and ravens, shrikes, birds of paradise, monarch flycatchers, drongos and mudnest builders. [cite book |author=Cracraft J, Barker FK, Braun M, Harshman J, Dyke GJ, Feinstein J, Stanley S, Cibois A, Schikler P, Beresford P, García-Moreno J, Sorenson MD, Yuri T, Mindell DP |editor=Cracraft J, Donoghue MJ |title=Assembling the tree of life |year=2004|publisher=Oxford Univ. Press |location=New York|isbn=0195172345 |pages=pp. 468–89 |chapter=Phylogenetic relationships among modern birds (Neornithes):toward an avian tree of life]
The following three subspecies are widely recognised:cite book |title=The Directory of Australian Birds: Passerines |author=Mason IJ, Schodde R|year=1999 |publisher=CSIRO |location=Canberra |isbn=0-643-06457-7]
*"R. leucophrys leucophrys", the nominate subspecies, is the most widely distributed form found in
Australia. The description below refers to it. There is negligible variation within this form, and little between the three; all have very similar plumage.
*"R. leucophrys picata" was described by John Gould in 1848. [Gould J (1848). "Introduction to the Birds of Australia". London: J. Gould viii 134 p. xxxix] It is found across northern Australia, from northern
Western Australiato Queensland. It has shorter wings, and it has a gradient in wing length between latitudes 18-22oS across the Australian continent where this subspecies intergrades with "leucophrys". [Higgins "et al." pp. 244–45] The subspecific epithet is Latin"pǐcata" "smeared with pitch". [cite book|author = Simpson DP| title = Cassell's Latin Dictionary | publisher = Cassell Ltd.| year = 1979|edition = 5|location = London|pages = 883| isbn=0-304-52257-0]
*"R. leucophrys melaleuca" was described by French naturalists
Jean René Constant Quoyand Joseph Paul Gaimardin 1830. [fr icon Quoy JRC, Gaimard JP in Dumont-d'Urville, J. (1830). "Voyage de découvertes de l'Astrolabe exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les anneés 1826-1827-1828-1829, sous le commandement de M.J. Dumont-d'Urville". Zoologie. Paris: J. Tastu Vol. 1 i p. 180] It occurs in eastern Indonesia, New Guinea, the Solomon Islandsand the Bismarck Archipelago. It is significantly larger, with longer bristles and larger bill. [Higgins "et al." p. 245] Its subspecific name is derived from the Ancient Greek "melas" "black", and "leukos" "white".
An adult Willie Wagtail is between 19 and 21.5 cm (7.5–8.5 in) in length and weighs 17–24 g (0.6–0.85 oz), with a tail 10–11 cm (approx 4 in) long. The short, slender bill measures 1.64–1.93 cm (around 0.75 in), and is tipped with a small hook. [Higgins "et al." p. 244] This species has longer legs than other fantails, which may be an adaptation to foraging on the ground. cite journal | author=Harrison CJO | year =1976| title =Some aspects of adaptation and evolution in Australian Fan-tailed Flycatchers | journal =Emu | volume =76 |pages =115–19 | doi =10.1071/MU9760115 | url = http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/MU9760115.htm | accessdate = 2008-06-08| doi_brokendate =2008-06-28] The male and female have similar
plumage; the head, throat, upper breast, wings, upperparts, and tail are all black, with a white eyebrow, 'whiskers' and underparts. The bill and legs are black and the iris dark brown. Immature birds in their first year after moulting from juvenile plumage may have pale tips in their wings, while juvenile birds themselves have duller plumage, their upperparts brown-tinged with some pale brown scallops on the head and breast.Higgins "et al." p. 226]
The Wagtail is very "chatty" and has a number of distinct vocalisations. Its most-recognised call is a rapid "chit-chit-chit-chit", but there are more melodious sounds in its repertoire. John Gould reported it sounded like a child's rattle or "small cog-wheels of a steam mill". In his book "What Bird is That?" (1935), Neville Cayley writes that it has "a pleasant call resembling "sweet pretty little creature", frequently uttered during the day or night, especially on moonlight nights". [cite web|author=Lambert, James|title=More additions to the Australian Lexicographical Record |publisher=ANU National Dictionary Centre |url= http://www.anu.edu.au/ANDC/res/aus_words/lambert/lambert_more.php |accessdate=2008-06-08 ]
Distribution and habitat
Widespread and abundant, the Willie Wagtail is found across most of Australia and
New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, the Bismarck Archipelago, and eastern Indonesia. It is sedentary across most of Australia, though some areas have recorded seasonal movements; it is an autumn and winter visitor to northeastern New South Wales and southeast Queensland, as well as the Gulf Countryand parts of Cape York Peninsulain the far north. It is a vagrant to Tasmania, [Higgins "et al." p. 229] and on occasion reaches Lord Howe Island. [Higgins "et al." p. 228] There is one record from Mangere Islandin the Chatham Islands archipelago east of New Zealandin 2002. [ cite journal |author=Gummer H | year =2002| title =First record of willie wagtail ("Rhipidura leucophrys") for New Zealand | journal =Notornis | volume =49| pages =186–88| url =http://www.notornis.org.nz/free_issues/Notornis_49-2002/Notornis_49_3_186.pdf|format=PDF | accessdate = 2008-06-08] The Willie Wagtail was released in Hawaiiaround 1922 to control insects on livestock, but the introduction was unsuccessful and the last sighting was at Koko Headin 1937. [cite book |title=Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments |last=Long |first=John L. |year=1981 |publisher=Reed |location=Terrey Hills, Sydney |isbn=0-589-50260-3|pages=p. 325]
The Willie Wagtail is at home in a wide variety of habitats, but avoids densely forested areas such as rainforest. It prefers semi-open woodland or grassland with scattered trees, often near wetlands or bodies of water. In New Guinea, it inhabits manmade clearings and grasslands, as well as open forest and mangroves. On
Guadalcanal, it was reported from open areas and coconut groves. [ cite journal |author=Donaghho WR | year =1950| title =Observations of Some Birds of Guadalcanal and Tulagi | journal =The Condor | volume =52 | issue =3 | pages =127–32| doi =10.2307/1364897] It has responded well to human alteration of the landscape and can often be seen hunting in open, grassed areas such as lawns, gardens, parkland, and sporting grounds. The species spread into the Western Australian Wheatbelt after the original vegetation had been cleared for agriculture. [cite book |title=Birds of Southwestern Australia: An Atlas of Changes in the Distribution and Abundance of the Wheatbelt Avifauna |last=Saunders, D. A. and Ingram, J. A. |first=DA |coauthors=Ingram JA |year=1995 |publisher=Surrey Beattie |location=Chipping Norton, New South Wales |isbn=0949324574]
The Willie Wagtail is almost always on the move and rarely still for more than a few moments during daylight hours. Even while perching it will flick its tail from side to side, twisting about looking for prey. Birds are mostly encountered singly or in pairs, although may gather in small flocks. Unlike other fantails, much of its time is spent on the ground.Coates, p. 140] It beats its wings deeply in flight, interspersed with a swift flying dip. It characteristically wags its tail upon landing after a short dipping flight. The Willie Wagtail is highly territorial and can be quite fearless in defence of its territory; it will harry not only small birds but also much larger species such as the
Australian Magpie("Gymnorhina tibicen"), Raven ("Corvus coronoides"), Laughing Kookaburra("Dacelo novaeguineae"), or Wedge-tailed Eagle("Aquila audax"). It may even attack domestic dogs and cats. When harassing an opponent, the Willie Wagtail avoids the head and aims for the rear. Both the male and female may engage in this behaviour, and generally more intensely in the breeding season. Territories range from 1–3 ha (2–7 acres) in area.Higgins "et al." p. 234] A pair of birds will declare and defend their territory against other pairs in a "diving display". One bird remains still while the other loops and dives repeatedly before the roles are reversed; both sing all the while.
The bird's white eyebrows become flared and more prominent in an "aggressive display", and settled and more hidden when in a submissive or "appeasement display".Boles, p. 384]
The Willie Wagtail perches on low branches, fences, posts, and the like, watching for insects and other small
invertebrates in the air or on the ground. It usually hunts by hawking flying insects such as gnats, flies, and small moths, but will occasionally glean from the ground. It will often hop along the ground and flit behind people and animals, such as cattle, sheep or horses, as they walk over grassed areas, to catch any creatures disturbed by their passing. It wags its tail in a horizontal fashion while foraging in this manner; the exact purpose of this behaviour is unknown but is thought to help flush out insects hidden in vegetation and hence make them easier to catch. [cite journal |author=Jackson J, Elgar MA|year=1993|title=The foraging behaviour of the willie wagtail "Rhipidura leucophrys": Why does it wag its tail? |journal=Emu |volume=93 |issue=4 |pages=284–86 |url=http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=MU9930284.pdf (full text)|format=PDF |accessdate=2008-07-04] The Willie Wagtail takes ticks from the skin of grazinganimals such as cattle or pigs, even from lions asleep in a zoo. [Higgins "et al." p. 230] It kills its prey by bashing it against a hard surface, or holding it and pulling off the wings before extracting the edible insides. [Higgins "et al." p. 232]
The adaptability and opportunistic diet of the Willie Wagtail have probably assisted it in adapting to human habitation; it eats a wide variety of
arthropods, including butterflies, moths, flies, beetles, dragonflies, bugs, spiders, centipedes, and millipedes, cite journal | author=Adriano S, Calver MC | year =1995| title =Diet of Breeding Willie Wagtails "Rhipidura leucophrys" in Suburban Western Australia | journal =Emu | volume =95 |pages =138–41 | url = http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=MU9950138.pdf|format=PDF| accessdate = 2008-06-08] and has been recorded killing small lizards such as skinksand geckos in a study in Madangon Papua New Guinea's north coast. cite journal | author=Dyrcz A, Flinks H | year =1995| title =Nestling and Adult Diet of the Willie Wagtail "Rhipidura leucophrys" Near Madang, Papua New Guinea | journal =Emu | volume =95 |pages =123–26 | url = http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=MU9950123.pdf|format=PDF| accessdate = 2008-06-08] The tailbones of these lizards have been found in their faecesalthough it is unclear whether the whole animal was eaten or merely the tail. Either way, lizards are only a very occasional prey item forming between 1 and 3% of the total diet. Evidence from the study in Madang suggested that the Willie Wagtail selectively fed nestlings larger prey.
Willie Wagtails usually pair for life. The breeding season lasts from July to December, more often occurring after rain in drier regions. Anywhere up to four broods may be raised during this time. It builds a cup-like nest on a tree branch away from leaves or cover, less than 5 m (16 ft) above the ground.
Raftersand eavesmay also be used. It has been observed to build its nest in the vicinity of those of the Magpie-lark("Grallina cyanoleuca"), possibly taking advantage of the latter bird's territoriality and aggression toward intruders. Similarly, it is not afraid to build near human habitation.
The nest consists of grass stems, strips of
bark, and other fibrous material which is bound and woven together with spider web. Even hair from pet dogs and cats may be used. The female lays two to four small cream-white eggs with brownish markings measuring 16 x 21 mm, [cite book|last= Beruldsen |first= Gordon |title = Australian Birds: Their Nests and Eggs |publisher= G. Beruldsen |year= 2003 |location= Kenmore Hills, Qld. |pages= p. 359 |isbn= 978-0646427980 ] and incubates them for 14 days. cite journal |author=Marchant S | year = 1974| title = Analysis of nest-records of the Willie Wagtail | journal = Emu | volume =74| pages =149–60 | url =http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/96/paper/MU974149.htm (abstract)| doi=10.1071/MU974149 |accessdate = 2008-06-11| doi_brokendate = 2008-06-28] Like all passerines, the chicks are altricialand nidicolous; they are born naked and helpless with closed eyes, and remain in the nest. [Higgins "et al." p. 241] Both parents take part in feeding the young, cite journal |author=Dyrcz A | year = 1994| title = Breeding Biology and Behavior of the Willie Wagtail "Rhipidura leucophrys" in the Madang Region, Papua New Guinea | journal = Emu | volume =94| pages =17–26 | url =http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/MU9940017.htm (abstract)|doi=10.1071/MU9940017| accessdate = 2008-06-11] cite journal |author=Goodey W, Lill A | year = 1993| title =Parental Care by the Willie Wagtail in Southern Victoria | journal = Emu | volume =93| pages =180–87 | url =http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/MU9930180.htm (abstract)|doi=10.1071/MU9930180 | accessdate = 2008-06-11| doi_brokendate =2008-06-28] and may continue to do so while embarking on another brood. [Coates, p. 141] Nestlings remain in the nest for around 14 days before fledging. Upon leaving, the fledglings will remain hidden in cover nearby for one or two days before venturing further afield, up to 20 m (60 ft) away by the third day. Parents will stop feeding their fledglings near the end of the second week, as the young birds increasingly forage for themselves, and soon afterwards drive them out of the territory.Higgins "et al." p. 242]
Pallid Cuckoo("Cuculus pallidus") will lay eggs in a Willie Wagtail nest, although the hosts often recognise and eject the foreign eggs, so successful brood parasitismis rare. Parasitism by the Fan-tailed ("Cacomantis flabelliformis"), Brush, ("C. variolosus"), Horsfield's Bronze ("Chrysococcyx basalis"), and Shining Bronze-cuckoo("C. lucidus") has also been reported.
Although the Willie Wagtail is a successful species, predators do account for many eggs and young. About two thirds of eggs hatch successfully, and a third leave the nest as fledglings. Nestlings may be preyed upon by both
Pied Butcherbird, ("Cracticus nigrogularis") Black Butcherbirds ("C. quoyi"), the Spangled Drongo("Dicrurus bracteatus"), and the Pied Currawong("Strepera graculina"), as well as the feral cat("Felis catus"), and rat species. The proximity of nesting to human habitation has also left nests open to destruction by children.
The Willie Wagtail was a feature in Australian aboriginal
folklore. Aboriginal tribes in parts of southeastern Australia, such as the Ngarrindjeriof the Lower Murray River, and the Narrunga People of the Yorke Peninsula, [cite web |url=http://www.ptpearceab.sa.edu.au/buth01.htm |title=The story of Buthera's Rock: A Story of the Narrunga People of Yorke Peninsula|accessdate=2008-06-07 |publisher=Point Pearce Aboriginal School |year=2008] regard the Willie Wagtail as the bearer of bad news.cite book |title=Where the Ancestors Walked: Australia as an aboriginal landscape |last=Clarke |first=Philip |year=2004 |publisher=Allen & Unwin |isbn=1741140706 |pages=p. 23] It was thought that the Willie Wagtail could steal a person's secrets while lingering around camps eavesdropping, so women would be tight-lipped in the presence of the Willie Wagtail. The people of the Kimberley held a similar belief that it would inform the spirit of the recently departed if living relatives spoke badly of them. They also venerated the Willie Wagtail as the most intelligent of all animals. However, the Gunwinggu in western Arnhem Land took a dimmer view and regarded it as a liar and a . Called the "Kuritoro" bird in New Guinea's eastern highlands, its appearance was significant in the mourning ceremony by a widow for her dead husband. She would offer him banana flowers; the presence of the bird singing nearby would confirm that the dead man's soul had taken the offering. [ cite journal |author=Aufenanger H | year =1980| title =On the Human Soul: Reports from the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea | journal =Asian Folklore Studies | volume =39 | issue =1 | pages =79–114| url =http://www.nanzan-u.ac.jp/SHUBUNKEN/publications/afs/pdf/a351.pdf|format=PDF | accessdate = 2008-06-08| doi =10.2307/1177518] The Willie Wagtail has been depicted on postage stamps in Palauand the Solomon Islands, [cite web |url=http://www.birdtheme.org/mainlyimages/index.php?comb=142013000&s=142 |title=Stamps showing 142013000 Willie-wagtail "Rhipidura leucophrys"|accessdate=2008-06-11 |author=Scharning K |year=2008 |work=Theme Birds on Stamps |publisher=self] and has also appeared as a character in Australian children's literature, such as " Dot and the Kangaroo" (1899), [cite book |title=Dot and the Kangaroo |last=Pedley |first=Ethel C. |year=1991|origyear=1899 |publisher=Angus & Robertson |location=Sydney |isbn=0207173389] "Blinky Bill Grows Up" (1935), [cite book |last=Wall |first=Dorothy |title=The Complete Adventures of Blinky Bill|chapter= Blinky Bill Grows Up |origyear=1935|year=1990 |publisher=Angus & Robertson |location=Sydney |isbn=0207167400 |chapter=Blinky Meets Willie Wagtail] and "Willie Wagtail and Other tales" (1929). [cite book|title= Willie Wagtailand Other Tales |last=Howes |first= Edith |year=1929 |publisher=Whitcombe and Tombs |location= Auckland |oclc= 154736279 ]
*cite book |title=The Robins and Flycatchers of Australia |last=Boles |first=Walter E. |year=1988 |publisher=Angus & Robertson |location= North Ryde, NSW |isbn= 978-0207154003
*cite book |title=The Birds of Papua New Guinea, Including the Bismarck Archipelago and Bougainville. Vol. 2: Passerines |last= Coates |first= Brian J. |year=1990 |publisher= Dove |location= Alderley, Qld. |isbn= 978-0959025712
*cite book |title=
Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Vol. 7: Boatbill to Starlings |author= Higgins, Peter Jeffrey, John M. Peter, and S. J. Cowling (eds.) |year= 2006 |publisher=Oxford University Press |location= Melbourne |isbn= 978-0195539967
* [http://www.bsc-eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp?pg=summary&lang=EN&id=AED672ACFC5782B3&ts=1177031766500 Avibase (Willie Wagtail)]
* [http://ibc.hbw.com/ibc/phtml/especie.phtml?idEspecie=6730 Willie Wagtail videos] on the Internet Bird Collection
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