- U.S. National Monument
A National Monument in the
United Statesis a protected areathat is similar to a National Park except that the President of the United Statescan quickly declare an area of the United States to be a National Monument without the approval of Congress. National monuments receive less funding and afford fewer protections to wildlife than national parks.
Another difference between a national monument and national park is the amount of diversity in what is being protected; national monuments aim to preserve at least one unique resource but do not have the amount of diversity of a national park (which are supposed to protect a host of unique features). However areas within and extending beyond, national parks, monuments or even national forests can be part of wilderness areas, which have an even greater degree of protection than a national park would alone, although wilderness areas managed by the United States Department of Agriculture's United States Forest Service and U.S.
Bureau of Land Managementoften allow hunting.
National monuments can be managed by one of several federal agencies; the
National Park Service, United States Department of Agriculture's U. S. Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Serviceor by the Bureau of Land Management.
The power to grant national monuments comes from the Antiquities Act of 1906. President
Theodore Rooseveltused the act to declare Devils Towerin Wyomingas the very first national monument. He thought Congress was moving too slowly and it would be ruined by the time they got around to making it a national park.
Antiquities Actof 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting mostly prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts — collectively termed "antiquities" — on federal lands in the West. It authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for persons taking or destroying antiquities without permission. And it authorized presidents to proclaim "historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest" as national monuments — "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."
So it was originally expected that national monuments would be proclaimed to protect prehistoric cultural features or antiquities and that they would be small. Yet the reference in the act to "objects of ... scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower, Wyoming the first national monument three months later. Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in
Arizona, another natural feature (Congress would later make it into a national park).
The expectation that national monuments would be small was also soon overcome. In 1908 Roosevelt again used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres (3,200 km²) of the
Grand Canyonas a national monument — a very big "object of scientific interest." And in 1918 President Woodrow Wilsonproclaimed Katmai National Monumentin Alaska, comprising more than a million acres (4,000 km²). Katmai was later enlarged to nearly 2.8 million acres (11,000 km²) by subsequent Antiquities Act proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit. Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, and Katmai were among the many national monuments later converted to national parks by Congress.
There was no significant Congressional opposition to this expansive use of the Antiquities Act in Arizona and Alaska - perhaps in part because Arizona and Alaska were then only territories without representation in Congress. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed
Jackson Hole National Monumentin Wyoming. He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., for addition to Grand Teton National Parkafter Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, and Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress finally incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming.
Since 1943 the proclamation authority has been used very sparingly, and seldom without advance Congressional consultation and support. In 1949, for example, President
Harry S. Trumanproclaimed Effigy Mounds National Monumentto accept a donation of the land from the state of Iowa, at the request of Iowa's delegation. On those rare occasions when the proclamation authority was used in seeming defiance of local and congressional sentiment, Congress again retaliated. Just before he left office in 1961, President Dwight D. Eisenhowerproclaimed the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Monumentafter Congress had declined to act on related national historical park legislation. The chairman of the House Interior Committee, Wayne Aspinallof Colorado, responded by blocking action on subsequent C & O Canal Park bills to the end of that decade.
The most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President
Jimmy Carterproclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill strongly opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act also curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska.
The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President
Bill Clintonproclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monumentin Utah. This action was widely unpopular in Utah, and bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority. To date none of them has been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed not by the National Park Service, but by the Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. New Monuments managed by the Park Service are Governors Island National Monument, Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, and Minidoka Internment National Monument. George W. Bushproclaimed two very different monuments in 2006, the hundredth anniversary of the Antiquities Act. African Burial Ground National Monumentis a tiny archeological site in New York City. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands National Monumentprotects roughly 140,000 square miles (360,000 km²) of the Pacific Ocean — larger than all of America's national parks combined. [cite web| url=http://www.pewtrusts.org/ideas/ideas_item.cfm?content_item_id=3417&content_type_id=15&page=15&issue=16&issue_name=Protecting%20ocean%20life&name=Op-eds%20(Pew)| title=Treasure Islands| author=Joshua Reichert and Theodore Roosevelt IV| accessmonthday=June 15 | accessyear=2006| ]
Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not only to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. For example, Franklin D. Roosevelt significantly enlarged
Dinosaur National Monumentin 1938, Lyndon B. Johnsonadded Ellis Islandto Statue of Liberty National Monumentin 1965, and Jimmy Carter made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978.
List of National Monuments of the United States
List of U.S. National Forests
List of areas in the National Park System of the United States(includes list of NPS-managed National Monuments)
List of U.S. wilderness areas
List of miscellaneous U.S. public areas
* [http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/hisnps/NPSHistory/monuments.htm National Monument Proclamations under the Antiquities Act] (public domain text)
* [http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/search.tkl?type=subject&q=National%20monuments&q2=LIV Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding National Monuments]
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