Bast fibre

Bast fibre

Bast fibre (fiber) or skin fibre is plant fibre collected from the phloem (the "inner bark" or the skin) or bast surrounding the stem of certain, mainly dicotyledonic, plants. They support the conductive cells of the phloem and provide strength to the stem. Most of the technically important bast fibers are obtained from herbs cultivated in agriculture, as for instance flax, hemp, or ramie, but also bast fibers from wild plants, as stinging nettle, and trees as the lime tree, have been used to some extent. Since the valuable fibers are located in the phloem, they must often be separated from the xylem material ("woody core"), and sometimes also from epidermis. The process for this is called retting, and can be performed by microoganisms either on land (nowadays the most important) or in water, or by chemicals (for instance high pH and chelating agents) or by pectinolytic enzymes. In the phloem bast fibers occur in bundles that are glued together by pectin and calcium ions. More intense retting separates the fiber bundles into elementary fibers, that can be several cm long. The bast fibres have often higher tensile strength than other kinds, and are therefore used for textiles (not seldom very exclusive textiles, sometimes in blends with cotton or synthetic fibers) ropes, yarn, paper, composite materials and burlap. A special property of bast fibers are that the fiber contain a special structure, "the fiber node", that represents a weak point. Fiber nodes seems not to be present in seed hairs as cotton.

Examples are:
* Jute
* Industrial hemp
* Flax (Linen)
* Ramie
* Kenaf
* Roselle hemp
* Rattan
* Soybean fibre
* Okra fibre
* Vine fibre
* Banana fibre

Use of bast fibre

Bast fibres are processed for use in carpet yarn, rope, geotextile (netting or matting), traditional carpets, hessian or burlap, paper, sacks, etc. Bast fibers are also used in the non-woven, moulding, and composite technology industries for the manufacturing of non-woven mats and carpets, composite boards as furniture materials, automobile door pannels and headliners, etc. From prehistoric times through at least the early 20th century, bast shoes were woven from bast strips in the forest areas of Eastern Europe.

External links

* [ International Jute Study Group]
* [ Bast Fibre cords in Viking ships]
* [ Bast fiber production with hemp]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • bast fibre — karniena statusas T sritis ekologija ir aplinkotyra apibrėžtis Sudėtingas induočių augalų apytakinis audinys, kuriuo organinių medžiagų tirpalai patenka į visus augalo organus. atitikmenys: angl. bast fibre vok. Bastfasern, f rus. волокно ивы, m; …   Ekologijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • bast fibre —       soft, woody fibre obtained from stems of dicotyledonous (dicotyledon) plants (flowering plants with net veined leaves) and used for textiles and cordage. Such fibres, usually characterized by fineness and flexibility, are also known as… …   Universalium

  • bast — [bast] noun fibre obtained from plants and used for matting and cord, in particular the inner bark of a lime tree. Origin OE bæst, of unknown origin …   English new terms dictionary

  • fibre — /ˈfaɪbə / (say fuybuh) noun 1. a fine thread like piece, as of cotton, jute, or asbestos. 2. a slender filament. 3. filaments collectively. 4. matter composed of filaments. 5. fibrous structure. 6. character: moral fibre. 7. a. filamentous matter …  

  • bast fiber — noun strong woody fibers obtained especially from the phloem of from various plants • Syn: ↑bast • Hypernyms: ↑natural fiber, ↑natural fibre * * * noun : bast 2 * * * bast (def. 2) …   Useful english dictionary

  • bast — noun /bæst/ Fibre made from the phloem of certain plants and used for matting and cord. I thought I saw Him in the Long Walk there, by the bed of Nelly Roche, tending a fallen flower with a wisp of bast …   Wiktionary

  • bast — n. the inner bark of lime, or other flexible fibrous bark, used as fibre in matting etc. Etymology: OE baeligst f. Gmc …   Useful english dictionary

  • Bast — n. the inner bark of lime, or other flexible fibrous bark, used as fibre in matting etc. Etymology: OE baeligst f. Gmc …   Useful english dictionary

  • natural fibre — ▪ raw material Introduction  any hairlike raw material directly obtainable from an animal, vegetable, or mineral source and convertible into nonwoven fabrics such as felt or paper or, after spinning into yarns, into woven cloth. A natural fibre… …   Universalium

  • natural fibre — noun fiber derived from plants or animals • Syn: ↑natural fiber • Hypernyms: ↑fiber, ↑fibre • Hyponyms: ↑pandanus, ↑New Zealand cotton, ↑bowstring hemp …   Useful english dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”