- Eugen Fischer
Eugen Fischer (
July 5, 1874– July 9, 1967) was a German professor of medicine, anthropologyand eugenics. He was one of those responsible for the Nazi German scientific theories of racial hygienethat legitimized the extermination of Jews, sent an estimated half a million Gypsies to their death in the Porajmos, and led to the compulsory sterilizationof hundreds of thousands of other individuals, deemed racially defective, such as the Rhineland Bastards, the mentally ill, and the mentally retarded.
Karlsruhe, Grand Duchy of Baden, Fischer joined the Nazi Partysoon after it was established. A book, "Human Hereditary Teaching and Racial Hygiene", co-written by him and Erwin Baurand Fritz Lenz, served as the "scientific" basis for Nazism's attitude toward other races. He served as the head of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics, until 1933, when Adolf Hitlerappointed him rector of a Berlin University of Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Berlin, now Humboldt University[ [http://www.historische-kommission-muenchen-editionen.de/rektoratsreden/anzeige/index.php?type=universitaet&id=104 Historische Komission München] de] .
Under the Nazi regime, Fischer developed the physiological specifications used to determine racial origins. He and his team experimented on Gypsies and African-Germans, taking
bloodand measuring skulls to find scientific validation for his theories.
Fischer retired from the university in 1942. After the war, he completed his memoirs, which critics claim whitewash his role in the genocidal program of the
Third Reich. He died in 1967.
*cite journal|title=Weimar eugenics: The kaiser wilhelm institute for anthropology, human heredity and eugenics in social context| author= Weindling P.|volume= 42|year= 1985| pages= 303–318| doi=10.1080/00033798500200221|journal=Annals of Science
*cite journal|title= Das Standardwerk der Rassenhygiene von Erwin Baur, Eugen Fischer und Fritz Lenz im Urteil der Psychiatrie und Neurologie 1921-1940|author=Fangerau H., Müller I.|journal= Der Nervenarzt |volume= 73|year= 2002|doi=10.1007/s00115-002-1421-1|pages=1039–1046
Racial policies of the Third Reich
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