- Paste up
Paste up refers to a method of creating, or laying out, publication pages that predates the use of the now-standard computerized page design
desktop publishingprograms. Completed, or camera-ready, pages are known as mechanicals or mechanical art. In the offset lithographyprocess, the mechanicals would be photographed with a stat camerato create a same-size film negative for each printing plate required.
Paste up relied on
phototypesetting, a process that would generate "cold type" on photographic paper that usually took the form of long columns of text. These printouts were usually a single columnin a scroll of narrow (3-inch or 4-inch) paper that was as deep as the length of the story.
A professional known variously as a layout artist, mechanical artist,
production artist, or compositor would cut the type into sections and arrange it carefully across multiple columns. For example, a 15 inchstrip could be cut into 3 5- inchsections.
These strips were then passed through a machine that would apply a
wax adhesiveto the back of the strip. The adhesive was semi-permanent, allowing the strips to be removed and moved around the layout if it needed to be changed. The strips would be adhered to a board, usually a stiff white paper on which the artist would draw the publication's margins and columns, either lightly in pencil or in non-photographic blue ink, a light cyancolor that would be ignored by the orthochromatic film used to make printing plates in offset lithography. For magazines, newspapers, and other recurring projects, often the boards would be printed in this color.
Other camera-ready materials like
photostats and line artwould also be passed through the adhesive and attached to the boards. Continuous-tone photographs would need halftoning, which would require black paper to be trimmed and placed on the board in place of the image; in the process of creating the negative film for the printing plates, the solid black area would create a clear spot on the negative, called a window. The photographs would be converted to halftone film separately and then positioned in this window to complete the page.
Once a page was complete, the board would be attached to an easel and photographed in order to create a negative, which was then used to make a printing plate.
Paste up was preceded by
hot typeand cold type technologies. Starting in the 1990s, many newspapers started doing away with paste up, switching to desktop publishing software that allows pages to be designed completely on a computer. Such software includes QuarkXPress, PageMakerand InDesign. Computers give newspapers a much faster and less messy way to design pages.
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