- Staphylococcus epidermidis
color = lightgrey
name = "Staphylococcus epidermidis/epidermis"
image_width = 240px
image_caption = Scanning electron image of "S. epidermidis".
regnum = Bacteria
genus = "
species = "S. epidermidis"
binomial = "Staphylococcus epidermidis"
binomial_authority = (Winslow & Winslow 1908)
"Staphylococcus epidermidis" is a member of the bacterial genus "
Staphylococcus", consisting of Gram-positivecocci arranged in clusters. It is catalase-positive [Todar, Kenneth. 2007. Todar's Online Textbook of Microbiology. [http://textbookofbacteriology.net/staph.html] ] and coagulase-negative and occurs frequently on the skin of humans and animals and in mucous membranes. It is a facultative anaerobe that grows by aerobic respiration or by fermentation [ [http://www.ebi.ac.uk/2can/genomes/bacteria/Staphylococcus_epidermidis.html Staphylococcus_epidermidis ] ] . It is sensitive to the antibiotic Novobiocin; a feature that distinguishes it from the other common coagulase negative organism " S. saprophyticus". Due to contamination, "S. epidermidis" is probably the most common species found in laboratory tests.cite book |chapterurl=http://www.horizonpress.com/staph|author= Queck SY and Otto M |year=2008|chapter=Staphylococcus epidermidis and other Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci |title=Staphylococcus: Molecular Genetics|publisher=Caister Academic Press|id= [http://www.horizonpress.com/staph ISBN 978-1-904455-29-5] ]
Although "S. epidermidis" is usually non-pathogenic, it is an important cause of infection in patients whose
immune systemis compromised, or who have indwelling catheters. Many strains produce a biofilmthat allows them to adhere to the surfaces of medical prostheses.
"S. epidermidis" is often resistant to a wide variety of
antibiotics, including penicillinand methicillin.
Colonies of "S. epidermidis" are typically small, white or yellow color, approximately 1-2 mm in diameter after overnight incubation. The organism is sensitive to
desferrioxamine, and this test is used to distinguish it from almost all other staphylococci. " Staphylococcus hominis", which is also sensitive, produces acid from trehalose, so it can usually be distinguished from "S. epidermidis".
The normal practice of detecting S.epidermidis is by using the Baird Parker agar with egg yolk supplement. Colonies appeared in small, black colonies while confirmation can be done using coagulase test. Increasingly, techniques such as
Real-time PCRand Quantitative PCRand are being employed for the rapid detection and identification of "Staphylococcus" strains. cite book |chapterurl=http://www.horizonpress.com/staph|author= Francois P and Schrenzel J|year=2008|chapter=Rapid Diagnosis and Typing of Staphylococcus aureus|title=Staphylococcus: Molecular Genetics|publisher=Caister Academic Press|id= [http://www.horizonpress.com/staph ISBN 978-1-904455-29-5] ] cite book | author = Mackay IM (editor). | title = Real-Time PCR in Microbiology: From Diagnosis to Characterization | publisher = Caister Academic Press | year = 2007 | url=http://www.horizonpress.com/rtmic | id = [http://www.horizonpress.com/rtmic ISBN 978-1-904455-18-9 ] ]
Genomics and molecular biology
The elucidation of the genomes of "S. epidermidis" and other coagulase-positive staphylococci, and a study of the molecular biology of "S. epidermidis" and its interaction with human host defenses, have provided detailed information on how these bacteria cause human disease. It has been shown that the repertoire and also the regulation of virulence factors in "S. epidermidis" may differ significantly from "
S. aureus". Information obtained from "S. epidermidis" may have paradigmatic character for many staphylococci and Gram-positive pathogens.cite book |chapterurl=http://www.horizonpress.com/staph|author= Queck SY and Otto M |year=2008|chapter=Staphylococcus epidermidis and other Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci |title=Staphylococcus: Molecular Genetics|publisher=Caister Academic Press|id= [http://www.horizonpress.com/staph ISBN 978-1-904455-29-5] ]
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