Graphoanalysis

Graphoanalysis

Graphoanalysis (a registered trademark of the International Graphoanalysis Society) is a system of Handwriting Analysis that falls within the approach of "Integrative Graphology". The core tenet is that every stroke of handwriting has a meaning which can be understood only within the context of the other strokes present in the handwriting.

Basic Traits are the meanings that are ascribed to individual stroke structures. These scores are derived from the frequency and intensity of the stroke structure.

Evaluated Traits are the meanings ascribed to clusters of individual stroke structures. This indicates how the trait is made manifest in the personality.

A professional Graphoanalyst bases their report exclusively on the Evaluated Trait scores.

Etymology

Graphoanalysis: graphos (from the Greek γράφειν): writing / analysis (from the Greek ἀνάλυσις). Fact|date=July 2008

History

Graphoanalysis is the system of handwriting analysis created by Milton N Bunker. He first studied handwriting analysis around 1913. By 1929, he had enough confidence in his system to form the "American Grapho Analysis Society". In 1957 the "International Graphoanalysis Society"(IGAS) was organized, by Peter Ferrara. Since 1961, IGAS has been the sole owner of all material, and intellectual property rights relating to Graphoanalysis.

Whilst the roots of Graphoanalysis are in the writings of Abbe Michon [Michon, l'Abbe Jean Hyppolyte "Systéme de Graphologie"] , the influence of Crépieux-Jamin [Crépieux-Jamin, J "L'A B C de la Grphologie", Paris] , and other European graphologers [Pulver, Max "Symbolik der Handschrift"] are visible, very little material published by Bunker, "The American Grapho Analysis Society", or "The International Graphoanalysis Society" has acknowledged these roots.

During the late fifties, the "Perspectograph" was developed. This is a bar chart which shows the distribution of slant for upstrokes.

Circa 1962 "The Green Sheet" was developed. This sheet lists most of the traits defined by Graphoanalysis, under the area of personality which the trait affects. For example, "Literary leanings" is only found in the subsection "Cultural Aptitudes". This sheet has been officially revised several times, the most recent being in 2002. Several former members of IGAS have released versions of this sheet [International Graphology Association (2002) "Worksheet" Bath, United Kingdom.] , with a number of additions, and changes.

"The Personality Wheel" was developed in the early seventies. The original version (? 1974) correlated with the charts used for the Psychogram. Later versions diverged considerably from it. By 1978 it simply listed the traits, as found on "The Green Sheet" in a wheel.

In the early 1990s, IGAS changed the definition, and scoring of some traits, without providing any explanation. The most popular theory is that the changes were a result of litigation against a Graphoanalyst, regarding the validity of handwriting analysis.

Validity

The validity of Graphoanalysis has been demonstrated by Crumbaugh, James C & Stockholm, Emilie (1977) [ Crumbaugh, James C & Stockholm, Emilie (1977) "Validation of Graphoanalysis by 'Global' or 'Holistic' Method." "Perceptual And Motor Skills" April 1977, 44(2), 403-410)] . This study has been replicated by other researchers.

A major shortcoming is the lack of published studies of both the individual stroke structures, and the clusters of individual stroke structures. Thus far, there have been no comprehensive, systematic research studies of either the strokes, or the stroke clusters. There is some published research that implies that stroke clusters do correlate with some sub-scores, on various psychological tests.

The published reliability studies [ Galbraith, Dorothy & Wilson, Warner Reliability of the Graphoanalytic Approach to Handwriting Analysis. "Perceptual And Motor Skills" 1964, 19(2), 615-618. ] [Vestewig, Richard; Santee, Aileen H & Moss, Martin K Validity and Student Acceptance of a Graphoanalytic Approach to Personality. "Journal of Personality Assessment", 1976, 40 (6), 592-598.] on Graphoanalysis have used very few --- typically less than five --- analysts. The immediate consequence is that it is demonstrated to have high reliability.

The only Normative project was "The IGAS Trait Norm Project" [Stockholm, Emile (1980)Statistical Data For Basic Traits of Graphoanalysis: IGAS Trait Norm Project.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1980, 51, 220-222] published in 1980. The critics of this study had a field day, demonstrating poor research design and methodology.

The Green Sheet

The "Green Sheet" [IGAS. (2002) "Graphoanalysis Worksheet" Chicago, IL. (Last known published edition) ] is the worksheet used by Graphoanalysts, to organize their report. This sheetcontains 119 traits to be evaluated from the Basic Traits. This data is then combined, to produce the scores for the evaluated traits, which are used to write the final report.

The general recommendation is that raw scores of at least one hundred occurrences, or potential occurrences of a stroke structure be obtained.

Vocabulary

Terms used in Graphoanalysis have a specific, technical meaning [International Graphoanalysis Society. (1964). "The Encyclopedic Dictionary for Graphoanalysis", Chicago, IL. First Edition] . The common dictionary meaning is often only marginally related to the technical meaning used by the Handwriting Analyst.

Emotional Foundation

The sections here are:
* Unconscious Response;
* Conscious Depth;
* Unconscious Depth;

The following are not part of "The Green Sheet". Variants worksheets may include them:
* Controls;
* Restraints;
* Training;

Conscious Response is scored by measuring the upslant at least 100 consecutive letters. The classification is as follows:
* F-- 0 - 25 degrees;
* F- 25 - 55 degrees;
* FA 55 - 90 degrees;
* AB 90 - 112 degrees;
* BC 112 - 125 degrees;
* CD 125 - 134 degrees;
* DE 134 - 146 degrees;
* E+ 146 - 163 degrees;
* E++ 163 - 180 degrees;

Both E++ and F-- are used by very few Graphoanalysts. Zero degrees is the left hand side.

Unconscious Response is scored by measuring the downslant of at least 100 consecutive letters.
* 0 - 30 degrees;
* 30 - 60 degrees;
* 60 - 90 degrees;
* 90 - 100 degrees;
* 100 - 110 degrees;
* 110 - 120 degrees;
* 120 - 130 degrees;
* 130 - 140 degrees;
* 140 - 150 degrees;
* 150 - 160 degrees;
* 160 - 170 degrees;
* 170 - 180 degrees;

Zero degrees is the left hand side.

Unconscious Depth is scored by measuring the downslant pressure of at least 100 consecutive strokes.

Conscious Depth is scored by measuring the upslant pressure of at least 100 consecutive strokes.

Depth is usually measured on a scale of 0 to 5.
* 0: Absent;
* 1: Very Light;
* 2: Light;
* 3: Medium;
* 4: Heavy;
* 5: Very Heavy;If the pressure is erratic, that will be noted on the worksheet.

The most common methods are:
* Feeling the underside of the paper with one's hand;
* Looking at the number of carbons that the writing can still be read on;
* Measure the width of the line of the writing;
* Look at the gouge that the writing instrument made in the material;
* Use a graphodyne;
* Guesswork/experience;

All of those methods have problems. The most objective appears to be measuring the width of the writing line. This can fail, because ball point pens usually leave a uniform line.

One popular practice is to proclaim that felt tip pens are, by definition, light pressure, and ultra thin ball point pens are, by definition, heavy pressure.

Controls
* Caution;
* Conservatism;
* Decisive;
* Dignity;
* Poise;
* Pride;

Restraints
* Analytical Thinking;
* Attention, Desire For;
* Caution;
* Conservatism;
* Cumulative Thinking;
* Dignity;
* Emotional Maturity;
* Emotional Trauma;
* Expansiveness;
* Indecisive;
* Inner Direction;
* Jealousy;
* Repression;
* Self Castigation;
* Self Conscious;
* Self Underestimation;
* Sensitiveness;
* Stingy;
* Timid;
* Ultra-Conservative;
* Withdrawal;
* Withdrawal, Extreme;

Training
* Confusion;
* Emotional Depth: Communication;
* Emotional Depth: Global;
* Emotional Depth: Mental;
* Emotional Depth: Self;
* Emotional Disturbance;
* Emotional Expression;
* Emotional Maturity;
* Emotional Outburst;
* Emotional Response: Communication;
* Emotional Response: Global;
* Emotional Response: Mental;
* Emotional Response: Self;
* Emotional Stability;
* Emotional Trauma;

Mental Processes

The basic mental processes are:
* Thinking Pattern;
** Analytical Thinking;
** Comprehensive Thinking;
** Cumulative Thinking;
** Exploratory Thinking;
** Investigative Thinking;
** Intuition;
* Intensifying Influences;
* Reductive Influences;

Imagination

The major sections here are:
* Abstract Imagination;
* Concrete Imagination;
* Mundane Imagination;

These are scored by looking at the following:
* Length of the stroke;
* Width of the stroke;
* Degree of closure of the stroke;
* Relation of the stroke to the base line;

Forces To Achieve

The sections here are:
* Goals;
* Will Power;
* Determination;
* Endurance;
* Intensifying Influences;
* Reductive Influences;

Raw scores for Goals, Determination,Endurance, and Will Power are determined by measuring:
* Frequency of the stroke;
* Length of the stroke;
* Width of the stroke;
* Distance above/below the base line;
* Degree of curvature of the stroke;

The specific stroke structure for each of those data points is different.

Fears

The Sections here are:
* Basic Fears;
* Evaluated Fears;

The specific data points in this section are:
* Attention, Desire For;
* Indecisiveness;
* Jealousy;
* Repression;
* Self-Castigation;
* Self-Consciousness;
* Self-Underestimation;
* Sensitiveness;
* Stinginess;
* Ultra-Conservative;
* Withdrawal;

Some Handwriting analysts also include Conflicting Provoking Traits as a sub-category. This would include the following datapoints:
* Attention, Desire For;
* Defiant;
* Despondent;
* Domineer;
* Evasion: Avoidance;
* Evasion: Concealment;
* Irritable;
* Narrow Minded;
* Procrastination;
* Repression;
* Sarcasm;
* Self Conscious;
* Self Deceptive;
* Self underestimation;
* Stingy;
* Temper;
* Timid;
* Ultra Conservative;
* Withdrawn;
* Withdrawn, Extreme;

Defences

The sections in this category are:
* Adjustment;
** Adjustment by Individuality;
** Adjustment by Modification;
** Adjustment by Permission;
* Resistance;
** Active Resistance;
** Passive Resistance;
* Escape;
** Escape by Castle Building;
** Escape by Non-Presence;

Some handwriting analysts also include Cautions in this sub-section. It was not part of "The Green Sheet". These datapoints correlate with specific DSM-IV Diagnose. As a consequence, they are seldom used by handwriting analysts. When used, if the score is moderate to high, further evaluation, and possibly treatment, by a Clinical Psychotherapist is warranted.

Integrity

The sections in this category are:
* Overall Integrity;
** Inner Direction;
** Depth, Emotional;
** Response, Emotional;
** Imagination;
** Rhythm;

* Supportive Influences;
* Reductive Influences;

Communication is often a subsection of Integrity.

Social Traits

These are divided into two groups:
* Positive;
* Negative;

Variant worksheets may include Red Flags as a sub-category here. The majority of Graphoanalysts prefer to treat the "Red Flag Traits" individually.

Aptitudes

The major aptitudes that are scored are:
* Business;
* Cultural;
* Mechanical;
* Scientific;

The following are not part of "The Green Sheet". Variant worksheets orientated towards employment may include them.

* Sales Ability;
* Leadership Ability;

Communication

This is not part of the "Green Sheet". Variant worksheets include this as a separate category, due to the importance of communication in both employment and compatibility reports

These traits are:

* Type of Communication;
** Avoids;
** Conceal;
** Deceit;
** Frank;
** Secretive;
** Attempts to be Secretive;
** Self Deceit;
* Processes of Communication;
** Open;
** Closed;

Global Factors

This is not part of the "Green Sheet". Some handwriting analysts that have been influenced by Holistic Graphology include one or more of the following in their worksheet:
* Direction;
* Conscious Response;
* Unconscious Response;
* Form Level;
* Ground Rhythm;
* Polarity;
* Speed;
* Time;
* Trend;
* Imagination;

Ideal Employee

This is not part of "The Green Sheet". This is included by handwriting analysts who specialize in employment related reports.
* Major Factors;
* Good Employee Assets;
* Good Employee Liabilities;
* Force;
* Drive;
* Motivation;
* Achievement;
* Communication;
* Social Skills;
* Responsibility;
* Organization Ability;
* Problem Solving Ability;
* Analytical Ability;
* Attention Span;
* Precision;
* Manual Ability;
* Sales Ability;
* Business Aptitude;
* Cultural Aptitude;
* Leadership Aptitude;
* Mechanical Aptitude;
* Scientific Aptitude;

These are core character traits for a generic position. As a general rule of them, the better the scores are here, the more likely the candidate will be suitable for a specific position. It does not replace other tools, such as comprehensive background checks, practical demonstration of work skills, and the like.

Computer software

In the ideal case, the handwriting analyst would score at least one hundred stroke structures, for each of the datapoints listed on "The Green Sheet". This takes roughly six hours to complete. An experienced handwriting analyst often will simply estimate the score for each data point, without doing any measurements. This will reduce the time required to score an analysis to thirty minutes, or less.

Thus far, there is no commercially available computer software that will score all of the datapoints for a report based upon Graphoanalysis. A spreadsheet in Open Document Format has been publicly released. It merely assists one in correctly calculating the scores, and creating a "Perspectograph" and "Personality Wheel Chart" for inclusion in one's final report.

Training

Training in Graphoanalysis is conducted by the International Graphoanalysis Society. The majority of this training is by correspondence. This certification has minimal recognition within the field of handwriting analysis.

References

See also

*Graphology
*International Graphoanalysis Society


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