Eupatorium

Eupatorium

Taxobox
name = "Eupatorium"



image_width = 240px
image_caption = "Eupatorium japonicum"
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
unranked_classis = eudicot
ordo = Asterales
familia = Asteraceae
tribus = Eupatorieae
genus = "Eupatorium"
genus_authority = L.
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = Some 36–60, and see text

"Eupatorium" is a genus of flowering plants, containing from 36 to 60 species depending on the classification system. Most are herbaceous perennial plants growing to 0.5–3 m tall. A few are shrubs. The genus is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Most are commonly called bonesets, thoroughworts or "snakeroots".

ystematics and taxonomy

"Eupatorium" has at times been held to contain as many as 800 species [Whittemore (1987)] , but many of these have been moved (at least by some authors) to other genera, including "Ageratina", "Chromolaena", "Condylidium", "Conoclinium", "Critonia", "Cronquistianthus", "Eutrochium", "Fleischmannia", "Flyriella", "Hebeclinium", "Koanophyllon", "Mikania", and "Tamaulipa".

The classification of the tribe Eupatorieae, including species placed in "Eupatorium" in the present or past, is an area of ongoing research, so further changes are likely. What seems fairly certain by now is that there is a monophyletic group containing "Eupatorium" (about 42 species of white flowered plants in North America, Europe and Asia, but not South America) and the Joe-pye weeds ("Eutrochium"), and possibly others. [Ito "et al." (2000), Schmidt & Schilling (2006)]

Uses

"Eupatorium" species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera:Verify source|date=November 2007
* "Bucculatrix eupatoriella" (a leaf-miner) - only known from Common Boneset ("E. perfoliatum")
* V-pug ("Chloroclystis v-ata")
* Wormwood Pug ("Eupithecia absinthiata")
* "Schinia trifascia"
* "Coleophora" case-bearers:
** "C. follicularis"
** "C. trochilella"
** "C. troglodytella"

A few species or cultivars, such as "E. sordidum" and "E. coelestinum" cv. 'Album', are sometimes used as ornamental plants. In particular, they are good for structural or background plantings or to attract butterflies; especially "E. itatiayense"Verify source|date=November 2007 , "E. maximiliani"Verify source|date=November 2007 and "E. squalidum"Verify source|date=November 2007 are known as good honey plants.

Tobacco leaf curl virus is a pathogen occasionally affecting plants of this genus.

Medical use

Boneset, although poisonous to humans and grazing livestock, has been used in folk medicine [Sharma "et al." (1999)] , for instance to excrete excess uric acid which causes gout. "Eupatorium" has many more presumed beneficial uses, including treatment of dengue fever, arthritis, certain infectious diseases, migraine, intestinal worms, malaria, and diarrhea. Boneset infusions are also considered an excellent remedy for influenza. Scientific research of these applications is rudimentary at present, however.

Caution is advised when using boneset, since it contains toxic compounds that can cause liver damage. Side effects include muscular tremors, weakness, and constipation; overdoses may be deadly.

Compounds that occur in this genus include Herniarin (7-O-methylumbelliferone, 7-methoxycoumarin; in aya-pana, "E. ayapana").

Selected species

North America

* "Eupatorium album" – White ThoroughwortSchmidt & Schilling (2000)] cite web | url = http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=112351 | title = Eupatorium | work = Flora of North America]
* "Eupatorium altissimum"
* "Eupatorium capillifolium" – "dog-fennel"
* "Eupatorium compositifolium"
* "Eupatorium hyssopifolium" – Hyssop-leaved Thoroughwort
* "Eupatorium lancifolium"
* "Eupatorium leptophyllum"
* "Eupatorium leucolepis"
* "Eupatorium linearifolium" ("Eupatorium cuneifolium")
* "Eupatorium mikanioides"
* "Eupatorium mohrii"
* "Eupatorium perfoliatum" L. – Common Boneset
* "Eupatorium resinosum" – Pine Barren Boneset [cite journal | title = Effect of cross proximity on progeny fitness in a rare and a common species of Eupatorium (Asteraceae) | author = DL Byers | url = http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/abstract/85/5/644 | journal = American Journal of Botany | volume = 85 | pages = 644 | year = 1998 ]
* "Eupatorium rotundifolium" – Round-leaved Thoroughwort
* "Eupatorium semiserratum"
* "Eupatorium serotinum" – Late Boneset, Late Thoroughwort
* "Eupatorium sessilifolium" L. – Upland Boneset

Europe

* "Eupatorium cannabinum" – Hemp-agrimony

Asia

* "Eupatorium amabile"cite web | url = http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=100&taxon_id=112351 | title = Eupatorium | work = Digital Flora of Taiwan]
* "Eupatorium benguetense" C. Robinson
* "Eupatorium camiguinense" Merr.
* "Eupatorium chinense" L.
* "Eupatorium formosanum" Hayata
* "Eupatorium fortunei" Turcz. – "fujibakama"
* "Eupatorium japonicum"cite web | url = http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=620&taxon_id=112351 | title = Eupatorium Linn. | work = Dinghushan Plant Checklist]
* "Eupatorium lindleyanum" DC.
* "Eupatorium luchuense" Nakai
* "Eupatorium nodiflorum" DC.
* "Eupatorium quaternum" DC.
* "Eupatorium sambucifolium" Elmer
* "Eupatorium shimadai" Kitam.
* "Eupatorium squamosum" D. Don
* "Eupatorium tashiroi" Hayata
* "Eupatorium toppingianum" Elmer
* "Eupatorium variabile" Makino
* "Eupatorium yakushimaense" Masam. & Kitam

Uncategorized

* "Eupatorium adamantium"Gardner
* "Eupatorium bracteatum" Gardn.
* "Eupatorium foeniculum"
* "Eupatorium itatiayense"Verify source|date=November 2007 Hieron.
* "Eupatorium laevis"Verify source|date=November 2007 DC.
* "Eupatorium makinoi"Verify source|date=November 2007
* "Eupatorium maximiliani"Verify source|date=November 2007 Schrad. ex DC.
* "Eupatorium officinalis"
* "Eupatorium pacificum"Verify source|date=November 2007
* "Eupatorium pyrifolium"Verify source|date=November 2007 DC.
* "Eupatorium rufescens"Verify source|date=November 2007 P.W.Lund. ex DC.
* "Eupatorium squalidum"Verify source|date=November 2007 DC.
* "Eupatorium urticaefolium"
* "Eupatorium vauthierianum"Verify source|date=November 2007 DC.

Moved to other genera

* "Eupatorium amygdalinum" (moved to "Ayapana")
* "Eupatorium ayapana" – aya-pana, Water Hemp (moved to "Ayapana")
* "Eupatorium coelestinum" – mistflower (moved to "Conoclinium")
* "Eupatorium collinum" (moved to "Chromolaena collina") [cite web | url = http://nomen.at/Eupatorium%20collinum | work = nomen.at | title = Eupatorium collinum] [cite web | url = http://www.henriettesherbal.com/plants/eupatorium-collinum | title = Eupatorium collinum | work = Henriette's Herbal ]
* "Eupatorium gayanum" – asmachilca (moved to "Aristeguietia gayana" [ [http://www.rain-tree.com/ayapana.htm Database entry Ayapana - Ayapana triplinervis - Ayapana - Eupatorium ayapana - Ayapana - Eupatorium triplinerve ] ] [ [http://www.chemfinder.co.uk/supplier_ms8888.html Fine Chem Trading (ChemFinder - UK) - Supplier MS8888 ] ] )
* "Eupatorium ligustrinum" (moved to "Ageratina ligustrina" [cite web | url = http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?16323 | title = Eupatorium ligustrinum DC. | work = United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Area, Germplasm Resources Information Network] )
* "Eupatorium maculatum" ("Eutrochium maculatum") Joe-Pye Weed
* "Eupatorium megalophyllum" (moved to "Bartlettina sordida")
* "Eupatorium purpureum" (moved to "Eutrochium purpureum")
* "Eupatorium rugosum" (moved to "Ageratina altissima")
* "Eupatorium sordidum" (moved to "Bartlettina sordida") [cite web | url = http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=EUSO3 | title = Eupatorium sordidum Less. | work = USDA PLANTS] [cite web | url = http://floraseries.landcareresearch.co.nz/pages/Taxon.aspx?id=_f92c08e2-69f9-4e39-b75a-af571c21abbb&fileName=Flora%204.xml | title = B. sordida | work = Flora of New Zealand | author = Webb, C.J.; Sykes, W.R.; Garnock-Jones, P.J. | date = First electronic edition, Landcare Research, June 2004 | accessdate = 2008-01-28 ]

Footnotes

References

* (2004): "Encyclopedia of Folk Medicine: Old World and New World Traditions." ABC-CLIO, Inc., Santa Barbara. ISBN 1576078744
* (2000): Phylogeny and Phytogeography of "Eupatorium" (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae): Insights from Sequence Data of the nrDNA ITS Regions and cpDNA RFLP. "Journal of Plant Research" 113(1): 79-89. doi|10.1007/PL00013913 (HTML abstract)
* (1995): "Taxonomy of "Eupatorium" Section "Verticillata" (Asteraceae)". New York Botanical Garden Press. ISBN 0-89327-391-0
* (2005): "The Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine" (2nd ed., vol. 1). Gale Group, New York. ISBN 0787674249
* (2000): Phylogeny and biogeography of "Eupatorium" (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) based on nuclear ITS sequence data. "Am. J. Bot." 87(5): 716-726. PMID 10811796 [http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/reprint/87/5/716.pdf PDF fulltext]
* (1999): A review of the toxicosis and biological properties of the genus "Eupatorium". "Natural Toxins" 6(1): 1–14. doi|10.1002/(SICI)1522-7189(199802)6:1%3C1::AID-NT3%3E3.0.CO;2-E (HTML abstract)
* (1987): The Sectional Nomenclature of "Eupatorium" (Asteraceae). "Taxon" 36(3): 618-620. doi|10.2307/1221856


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