:"CARTS" redirects here. For the transportation system, see
Capital Area Rural Transportation System", or " Chautauqua CARTS."
A cart is a
vehicleor device, using two wheels and normally one horse, designed for transport. A handcart is pulled or pushed by a person. It is different from a dray or wagon, which is a heavy transport vehicle with four wheels and normally at least two horses, which in turn is different from a carriage, which is used exclusively for transporting humans.
Animals such as oxen,
zebucattle or donkeys are sometimes used instead of horses.
Indus Valley Civilization(3000–1500 BCE). Housed at the National Museum, New Delhi.]
Carts have been mentioned in literature as far back as the second millennium B.C. The Indian sacred book
Rigvedastates that men and women are as equal as two wheels of a cart. Hand-carts pushed by humans have been used around the world. In the 19th century, for instance, some Mormons travelling across the plains of the United Statesbetween 1856 and 1860 used handcarts.
Carts were often used for judicial punishments, both to transport the condemned – a
public humiliationin itself (in Ancient Romedefeated leaders were often carried in the victorious general's triumph) – and even, in England until its substitution by the whipping post under Queen Elizabeth I, to tie the condemned to the cart-tail and administer him or her a public whipping.
Types of carts
Larger carts may be drawn by
animals, such as horses, mules, or oxen. They have been in continuous use since the invention of the wheel, in the 5th millennium BC. Carts may be named for the animal that pulls them, such as horsecarts or oxcarts. In modern times, horsecarts are used in competition while draft horse showing. A dogcart, however, is usually a cart designed to "carry" hunting dogs: an open cart with two cross-seats back to back; the dogs could be penned between the rear-facing seat and the back end.The term "cart" (synonymous in this sense with "chair") is also used for various kinds of lightweight, two-wheeled carriages, some of them " sprung carts" (or "spring carts"), especially those used as open pleasure or sporting vehicles. They could be drawn by a horse, pony or dog. Examples include:
*"cocking cart": short-bodied, high, two-wheeled, seat for a groom behind the box; for
tandemdriving [ [http://www.caaonline.com/caa_content.asp?PageType=Dept&Key=15&MCat=16 CAAOnline: Carriage Tour.] The Carriage Association of America, Inc.]
dogcart": light, usually one horse, commonly two-wheeled and high, two transverse seats set back to back
*"donkey cart": underslung axle, two lengthwise seats; also called "pony cart, tub-cart"
*"governess cart": light, two-wheeled, entered from the rear, body partly or wholly of
wickerwork, seat for two persons along each side; also called "governess car, tub-cart"
*"ralli cart": light, two-wheeled, horse-drawn, for four persons, body brought somewhat low by shafts fastened within rather than below it
*"stolkjaerre": two-wheeled, front seat for two, rear seat for the driver; used in Norway
*"tax cart": spring cart, formerly subject to a small tax in England; also called "taxed cart"
*"Whitechapel cart": spring cart, light, two-wheeled, especially for family or light delivery service
An animal-drawn cart can bear the archaic name of "
wain" (from the Old English and German root-word for wagon), for example a haywain, and the builders of such vehicles became known as "cartwrights" or "wainwrights". These terms survive as surnames of families descended from those practising these trades; also note the surname "Carter".Carts have many different shapes but the basic idea of transporting material (or maintaining a collection of materials in a portable fashion) remains. Carts usually have two or four wheels. Those with four wheels (drays or wagons) will often have a pivoting front axle that has a pole connected to the collars or yokeof the two guiding draught animals. The traces from the draught animals are connected to the pivoting axle and then, by chain, to the rear axle. Two-wheeled carts normally have shafts, one along each side of the draught animal that supports the forward-balanced load in the cart. The shafts are supported by a saddle on the horse. The draught traces attach to the axle of the vehicle. In all cases the traces are attached to a collar (on horses), to a yoke (on other heavy draught animals) or to a harness on dogs or other light animals. One-horse carts are common, on the other hand drays are pulled by many animals, as many as 8 or 10 depending on what is being hauled.
Traces are made from a range of materials depending on the load and frequency of use. Heavy draught traces are made from
ironor steelchain. Lighter traces are often leather and sometimes hemp rope, but plaited horse-hair and other similar decorative materials can be used.
The dray is often associated with the transport of barrels, particularly of
Of the cart types not animal-drawn, perhaps the most common example today is the
shopping cart( British English: shopping ), which has also come to have a metaphorical meaning in relation to online purchases (here, British English uses the metaphor of the shopping basket). Shopping carts first made their appearance in Oklahoma City in 1937.
golf cart, designed to carry golfers and their clubs around a golf course faster and with less effort than walking, is another well known modern type of cart – in this case, self-propelled.
A "Porter's trolley is a type of small, hand-propelled wheeled platform. This can also be called a
baggage cart.since the 13th century.
soap-box cart(also known as a Billy Cart, Go-Cart, Trolley etc.) is a popular children's construction project on wheels, usually pedaled, but also intended for a test race.
The term "
Go-Kart", which exists since 1959, also shortened as " Kart", an alternative spelling of "cart", refers to a tiny race carwith frame and two-stroke engine; the old term "go-cart" originally meant a sedan chairor an infant walker
"Autocarts" are a type of small, hand-propelled wheeled utility carts having a pivoting base for storage in vehicles. They eliminate the need for plastic or paper shopping bags and are used by
tradespersons to carry tools, equipment or supplies. [http://autocarts.net/photogalleryb.aspx (Photos)]
Red River ox cart
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