Proxy Mobile IPv6

Proxy Mobile IPv6

Proxy Mobile IPv6 (or PMIPv6, or PMIP) is a network-based mobility management protocol standardized by IETF and is specified in RFC 5213. It is a protocol for building a common and access technology independent of mobile core networks, accommodating various access technologies such as WiMAX, 3GPP, 3GPP2 and WLAN based access architectures. Proxy Mobile IPv6 is the only network-based mobility management protocol standardized by IETF.



Network-based mobility management enables the same functionality as Mobile IP, without any modifications to the host's TCP/IP Protocol stack. With PMIP the host can change its point-of-attachment to the Internet without changing its IP address. Contrary to Mobile IP approach, this functionality is implemented by the network, which is responsible for tracking the movements of the host and initiating the required mobility signalling on its behalf. However in case the mobility involves different network interfaces, the host needs modifications similar to Mobile IP in order to maintain the same IP address across different interfaces.

Proxy Mobile IPv6 Specifications

Internet Standards (IETF):

SDO Standards (3GPP, 3GPP2 & WiMAX)

Proxy Mobile IPv6 Deployment Models

               +--------+       _----_                 |                +--------+       _----_
               |        |     _(      )_               |                |        |     _(      )_
               |        |----( Internet )              |                |        |----( Internet )              
               |  (LMA) |     (_      _)               |                |  (LMA) |     (_      _)               
               |        |       '----'                 |                |        |       '----'                 
               +--------+                              |                +--------+                              
                    |                                  |                    | 
            -- --  ---  -- --                          |                  _----_
         --                   --                       |                _(      )_
       --                       --                     |               ( internet )
     --        IP Network         --                   |                (_      _)
       --                       --                     |                  '----'
         --                   --                       |                     | 
             -- --  ---  -- --                         |               +-----------+
           /                   \                       |               |    MAG    |----    
   +-------------+       +-------------+               |               +-----------+    |--- (Session Chaining)
   |             |       |             |               |               |    LMA    |---- 
   |     MAG     |       |     MAG     |               |               +-----------+
   |             |       |             |               |                     |              
   +-------------+       +-------------+               |                  _----_
      |        |            |        |                 |                _(      )_    
   +-----+  +-----+      +-----+  +-----+              |            --(IP Network )--        
   |  AP |  |  AP |      |  AP |  |  AP |              |            |   (_      _)   |
   | (L2)|  | (L2)|      | (L2)|  | (L2)|              |            |     '----'     |
   +-----+  +-----+      +-----+  +-----+              |         +-----+           +-----+           
      .        .            .        .                 |         | MAG |           | MAG |   
     / \      / \          / \      / \                |         +-----+           +-----+                                
   MN                                                  |            /\
                                                       |            MN                    
 Proxy Mobile IPv6: Flat Domain Model                  |    Proxy Mobile IPv6: Domain Chaining

Key Properties of Proxy Mobile IPv6 Technology

  • Based on Open Internet Standards
  • No client software requirement
  • IP Address Continuity
  • Session Continuity when roaming within a single access technology domain
  • The mobile node can be an IPv4-client, IPv6 client or a dual stack client
  • The transport network between LMA and MAG can be IPv4 or IPv6
  • The tunnel between the LMA and MAG is a shared tunnel
  • The tunnel between LMA and MAG can be based on GRE or IP-in-IP
  • No packet fragmentation, as PMIP advertises adjusted MTU values on the access side
  • Extremely Light Weigh Protocol, MAG function can be implemented on a low-cost access point
  • Minimal Handover Latency
  • Signaling semantics are based on IPv6, but can be enabled on an IPv4 network
  • PMIPv6 signaling can be protected using standard IPsec transport mode ESP
  • Natural Support for Client Mobility. The LMA is a Mobile IPv6 Home Agent
  • Protocol Interface supported in 3GPP LTE Architecture
  • Standard Protocol Glue for linking access technology domains
  • Industry Wide Participation in Standardization
  • Adopted in 3GPP, WiMAX and 3GPP2 Architectures
  • Central traffic aggregation for charging, policy enforcement, LI and DPI Enforcement
  • Supported in all 3GPP LTE Packet Data Gateways (LMA function in PDN Gateway)
  • Future proof

Proxy Mobile IPv6: Technology Overview

Functional Entities

The PMIPv6 architecture defines two functional entities:

  • Local Mobility Anchor (LMA)
  • Mobile Access Gateway (MAG)

Messaging Call Flows



Protocol Operation

  • A mobile host enters a PMIP domain
  • A Mobile Access Gateway on that link checks host authorization
  • A mobile host obtains an IP address
  • A Mobile Access Gateway updates a Local Mobility Anchor about the current location of a host
  • Both MAG and LMA create a bi-directional tunnel
  • A Mobile Access Gateway sends an Router Advertise message to MN with Care-of-Address

Access Authentication

  • access authentication and mobile node's identity
  • mobile node's policy profile
  • MAG and Authenticator Collocation

Security Considerations

  • Control Plane Security
  • Data Plane Security

Address Assignment

  • IPv4 Address Assignment over DHCPv4
  • Stateless Autoconf for IPv6

Proxy Mobile IPv6: Technology Applications

  1. Selective IP Traffic Offload Support with Proxy Mobile IPv6
  2. Network-based Mobility Management in a local domain (Single Access Technology Domain)
  3. Inter-technology handoffs across access technology domains (Ex: LTE to WLAN, eHRPD to LTE, WiMAX to LTE)
  4. Access Aggregation replacing L2TP, Static GRE, CAPWAP based architectures, for 3G/4G integration and mobility

Selective IP Traffic Offload (SIPTO) Support with Proxy Mobile IPv6

Mobile Operators today are facing two fundamental challenges:

  • There is availability of only finite amount of licensed spectrum, limiting the number of mobile nodes that can be active at a point of time in the macro network. This is proving to be a major issue in high-density areas, such as San Francisco city.
  • The exponential growth in the mobile data traffic is creating significant capacity problems in the mobile packet core

To address these scaling challenges, mobile operators are exploring new technology approaches for expanding their network coverage by integrating alternative access technologies into a common mobile core. Specifically, Wireless LAN networks based on IEEE 802.11 standards is showing lot of promise.


Secondly, for addressing the issue with the massive growth in mobile data traffic, mobile operators are exploring new ways to offload some of the IP traffic flows at the nearest WLAN access edge where ever there is an internet peering point, as supposed to carrying it all the way to the mobility anchor in the home network. Not all IP traffic needs to be routed back to the home network; some of the non-essential traffic which does not require IP mobility support can be offloaded at the access edge gateway. This approach provides greater leverage and efficient usage of the mobile packet core with increased overall network capacity and by lowering transport costs. Approaches such as, Selective IP Traffic Offload Option can be provide the basic offload semantics.

How to Implement Proxy Mobile IPv6

Mobile Access Gateway

Functional Block Requirement Platform API Interface Description
Trigger Handler Events: MN-ATTACHED, MN-DETACHED Parameters: Mac-Address, MN-Id (if present) Linux API - TBD This functional block is required for detecting the triggers related to mobile node's attachment, detachment, address configuration and router discovery related events. The network triggers, ARP message for the default-router’s MAC address, Gratuitous ARP message, DHCP Request message, IPv6 ND messages are the potential triggers for the MAG to initiate PMIPv6 signaling. In some cases, trigger can also be based on detecting a new MAC address on the access link by other link-layer specific means. Refer to: RFC 5844, RFC 5213, RFC 4436, RFC 5227. The identity of the mobile node in these triggers is always the Mac address, except for DHCPv4, where the client-identifier option can potentially be the mobile node identifier (if set by the client or a transit node such as an access point, or a WLAN controller).
Identity Management GET-MN-Identity. Parameters: Mac Address, MN-Id TBD The identity of the mobile node is tied to the access authentication. When the mobile node using 802.1x/EAP mechanisms complete the access authentication, its identity used for authentication and the corresponding Mac address of the MN is known. If access Authenticator function and the MAG are functionally collocated on the same node, it is internal to the implementation as how that mapping between the mobile node’s identity and its link-layer/Mac identifier is obtained. It is also possible these functions are hosted on different network nodes (Ex: Authenticator on the AP and the MAG on the Wireless-LAN-controller/first-hop-router), but with some protocol interface between the two nodes, that enables the MAG to obtain the mobile node's identity. Refer to Section 6.6, RFC 5213. When using Mac Address as the MN-Id, the security implications and the Mac address in the policy profile needs to be understood.
Policy Profile GET-MN-Profile. Parameters: MN-Id TBD The mobile's node policy profile identifies the service preferences for a given mobile node. Parameters such as PMIPV6 Domain, LMA IP Address, 3GPP APN ..etc, are present in the profile. Refer to Section 6.2, RFC 5213 This profile is typically on a central policy store such as AAA, or it can also be locally configured. Refer to PMIPv6 RADIUS draft, or PMIPv6 Diameter Interface (RFC 5779).
PMIPv6 Signaling PBU/PBA Messages TBD The options that are required in the PBU message are a.) Home Network Prefix option b.) IPv4 Home Address Request option c.) Access Technology Type option d.) Link-layer Identifier option e.) Handoff Indicator option. Other optional parameters such as Service Selection Option for carrying the 3GPP APN information, Access Network Information option, IPv4 Traffic Offload Option, and any Vendor Specific options. Refer to Section 8 (RFC 5213). Section 3 (RFC 5844), Section 3 (RFC 5094), Section 3 (RFC 5149). It is to be noted that the PBU is just MIPv6 BU message. Any of the MIPv6 Open source implementations can be used as the messaging library after adding the new options.
DHCPv4 Interactions Get-IP-Address-From-LMA, Assign-IP-Address-To-MN. Parameters: MN-Id, Mac Address, IPv4 home Address, Subnet Mask, Default-router Address Example The mobile node obtains its IPv4 address using DHCPv4. RFC-5844 supports two modes of DHCP configurations, DHCP server collocated on the MAG and the DHCP Relay collocated on the MAG. Implementing DHCP server (minimalistic) collocation on the MAG is the simpler approach. The needed interactions are the ability to influence the DHCP server to assign an IPv4 address that the MAG obtained from LMA over PMIPv6 signaling plane. When there is DHCP Discover request from the mobile node, the DHCP server should trigger the MAG and the MAG should return the IP address after completing the PMIPv6 signaling with the mobile node's LMA. The DHCP server should assign the IP address that it obtains from the LMA. The MAG should also be able to respond to any ARP requests for the default-router address.
Tunnel Management Create-Tunnel, Delete Tunnel. Parameters: Encap-Type, IP Source Address, IP Destination Address Example PMIPv6 specifications support GRE, IP-in-IP encapsulation modes. In other words the tunnel encapsulations can be IPv4-GRE, IPv6-GRE, IPv4 and IPv6. The payload packet can be IPv4, or IPv6, carried with the negotiated tunnel encap. The linux open source package, IPRoute2, support both these encapsulation modes.
IP Forwarding Add-IPv4-Tunnel-Route, Delete-IPv4-Tunnel-Route, Add-Reverse-Tunnel-Policy-Route, Delete-Reverse-Tunnel-Policy-Route. Parameters: IPv4 Address, IPv6-Prefix, Tunnel-Interface-Id, MN-MAG-Interface-Id. TBD The MAG should ensure any IPv4 or IPv6 packets from the mobile node using the IP addresses assigned by the LMA, should be reverse tunneled over the PMIPv6 LMA tunnel. Typically, a PBR route tied to the MAC address, source IPv4 address, source IPv6 prefix in the packet headers can be used for selecting the packet for reverse tunneling. When local-routing is enabled, there are some optimizations needed.

Local Mobility Anchor

Functional Block Requirement Platform API Interface Description
Proxy Model TBD TBD Extend open source MIPv6 Home Agent to support PMIPv6
Addressing Model TBD TBD TBD
Security Model TBD TBD TBD
Data Structures TBD TBD Extend the BCE table with new parameters, define new PMIPv6 mobility options

Challenge to Graduate Students:

  1. Learn TCP/IP and IPv6 protocols from Richard Stevens. Understand IP Mobility Technology, read IP mobility protocols from RFC 3775, RFC 5213 and RFC 5844.
  2. Implement the PMIPv6 LMA function on Linux. Identify the changes needed to MIPv6 Home Agent for supporting PMIPv6 mobility sessions.
  3. Implement the PMIPv6 MAG function on Linux. Define the State Machine, interactions with other functional modules such as ARP, ND, DHCP and Policy Routing and protocol interactions with the LMA and AAA. Demonstrate IP mobility for mobile node's IP sessions, for inter-MAG handovers.
  4. Leverage MIPv6 open source implementations from KAME for the messaging library, use the open source IPRoute2 package for tunnel management, use DHCP server from ISC, or from busybox. Talk to KAME implementors on MIPv6 implementation related questions.
  5. Do not forget to publish the open sources with your name in the sources for the use of the community. Enter the Mobile World !!!

Proxy Mobile IPv6 Commercial Implementations

  • Cisco (IOS Routers and Mobile Gateways)
  • Nokia Siemens Networks
  • Starent (now part of cisco)
  • Number of other LTE PGW vendors

See also

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Proxy Mobile IP — (or PMIP, or Proxy Mobile IPv6) is a new standard currently (2008) being work on at Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Sometimes referred to as Network based mobility management it provides similar functionality to that of Mobile IP, however …   Wikipedia

  • Mobile IP — ist ein Netzprotokoll Standard der Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), der entworfen wurde, um Benutzern von mobilen Geräten (z. B. Notebooks) den Wechsel von einem Rechnernetz in ein anderes zu ermöglichen und dabei gleichzeitig eine feste… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • IPv6 — im TCP/IP‑Protokollstapel: Anwendung HTTP IMAP SMTP DNS … Transport TCP UDP Internet IPv6 Netzzugang …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mobile IP — (or IP mobility) is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard communications protocol that is designed to allow mobile device users to move from one network to another while maintaining a permanent IP address. Mobile IP for IPv4 is… …   Wikipedia

  • IPv6 transition mechanisms — Standards Track 4in6 6in4 6over4 DS Lite …   Wikipedia

  • IPv6 — Pile de protocoles 7.  Application 6.  Présentation 5.  Session 4.  Tr …   Wikipédia en Français

  • IPv6 — Internet protocol suite Application layer BGP DHCP DNS FTP …   Wikipedia

  • Proxy ARP — ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) Familie: Internetprotokollfamilie Einsatzgebiet: Netzwerkadressenzuordnung ARP im TCP/IP‑Protokollstapel: Anwendung HTTP IMAP …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Comparison of IPv6 application support — This is a comparison of popular Internet applications in regards to their support of the IPv6 protocol. Applications Application Category IPv6 supported? Zone ID supported? Earliest version # with IPv6 support Notes Reference links AbsoluteTelnet …   Wikipedia

  • Comparison of mobile Internet Relay Chat clients — This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. The following tables compare general and technical information between a number of IRC client programs for mobile devices. Please see the individual products articles for further information …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”